Rating of insanity. Versions of the death of the Djatlov group for any taste and color.
Since there are a lot of such versions, it makes sense to classify them in some way. Optimal is the classification adopted at most thematic forums and websites, so we will not reinvent the wheel and use it as a model.
So, all the diversity of versions can be reduced to three large dissimilar groups, explaining the death of the group by the influence of factors of the following nature:
- the criminal.
Natural, as the name suggests, tries to explain the tragic events on the slope of Holatchahl with natural phenomena and operate with natural scientific facts and representations within the competence of the authors.
The most substantiated of all versions of this category is the suggestion of Eugene Vadimovich Buyanov, a St. Petersburg researcher of the "Dyatlov" tragedy, about what happened at the site of the tent's installation, the avalanche. Evgeny Vadimovich justified this version in his book The Mystery of the Dyatlov Accident written in co-authorship with Boris E. Slobtsov, who was repeatedly mentioned in this essay as a participant in the search operation. It should be noted that the book was very informative, even about very boring purely technical and mathematical materials, the authors were able to write lively and entertaining. This book can be recommended for reading even for the purpose of simply expanding the horizon - time will not be wasted. Not least because of the literary merits of this book, the version of Evgeny Vadimovich Buyanov was not only widely known, but also popular. Supporters of it are usually called "avalanche".
Avalanche version suggests that the avalanche collapse triggered the reckless actions of tourists who "cut" the snow layer when leveling the area under the tent. Because of this, a wall formed above the slope, the upper part of which at some point moved down, filling up the tent and the people inside. Strictly speaking, it was not an avalanche in the traditional sense, when the snow shaft erratically flies along the slope, and the snow plate moves several yards away. Moving this hooked part of the tent, far from the entrance, the front did not hurt. Strong pressed (firn) snow thickness of about 50 cm is quite capable of reason was beneath a person severe physical damage, so that the injury Dubinina, Zolotarev and Thibault Brignole gets this version of a logical explanation. The remaining netravmirovannymi members of the group have taken all possible for self-salvation action - they have caused a large number of minor cuts right (when viewed from the entrance) ramp tent, in order to determine the thickness of the rubble of snow and ensure the access of air, followed by a series of long incisions made remedies for yourself and comrades. Through these incisions-exits, they dragged seriously wounded friends to the slope and took the necessary measures to insulate them - this explains the fact that Zolotarev and Thibault Brignol were dressed better than the other members of the group. The last one, whose temple was crushed by the camera's lens, was already unconscious by that time. In confirmation of this, "avalanche" refers to the fact that in the pocket of Thibault's jacket lay gloves, and in the felt-boots there was a worn-out woolen sock. Say, if Nikolai was conscious, he would certainly put on gloves and pulled out of his felt boots a leg in the way that interfered with his leg.
Injured with the support of the rest of the group were taken to the Lozva Valley, where they dug a hole in the ravine for them and built a flooring. Realizing that missing mittens and shoes people are waiting for imminent frostbite and death, some of the tourists moved back to the tent and perished on the slope. Two people at the cedar died, trying to maintain the last strength of the fire, which served as a guide for the departed and Alexander Kolevatov remained with wounded comrades alone. This is the outline of events, according to the avalanche version.
The hypothesis, to be sure, is very interesting, it has only one drawback - it has nothing to do with the Djatlov group.
In short, the most significant objections to the development of events according to the "avalanche scenario" can be formulated as follows:
1) No traces of the avalanche on the slope of the Holatchahl were observed, and no one saw the snow slab that had crushed the tent, from search engines that visited the mountain in February-March. Among the latter, we recall, were not just tourists, but also climbers, who had repeatedly collided with avalanches before. The general opinion of all who saw the place of setting up the tent, including Moscow experts who visited there at the very beginning of the search operation, it posed no danger. "Avalanche" explains the absence of snow by the fact that it was "blown up by a strong wind" before the first search engines appeared. In this strange and unexplained remains the fact that the "strong wind" for some reason did not "inflate" the footprints of the "dyatlovtsev" from the tent to the valley of Lozva. Traces of these, we recall, were visible until March 6, 1959, they were seen by mountaineers from the group Abram Konstantinovich Kikoin;
2) Moving snow (or avalanche) for some reason surprisingly did not knock down the ski poles, installed on both sides of the tent. Recall that the rope-pulling the far from the entrance of the part of the tent were torn down, but the sticks thrust into the snow stood, and did not collapse, which would be logical, with the movement of the snow layer;
3) The snowfall on the tent would inevitably lead to the flooding of the ramp and would make it impossible to apply those cuts that we know. The tent was turned up the slope to the left (if viewed from the entrance) by a slope and the rapid movement of the snow slab would inevitably lead to the fact that it "lay" on the bodies of tourists who were inside. At the same time, the tent of the tent "left" for lying to people in the area of the knees. In order to get out, the "Dytlov's group" would have to cut the left ramp. In fact, the right was cut. Of course, we can assume that the tourists lay their heads in the opposite direction, that is, down the slope, but this assumption seems unlikely (recall that to the right of the entrance to the middle of the tent were found 2 pairs of shoes.) No sensible person will put smelling then boots to themselves. In addition, it will not be a mistake to say that the right ramp in the event of a snowball on the left would have been severely crushed and would have turned out to be an accordion. A tarpaulin can not be cut in this state at all;
This diagram illustrates the dicing of the snow plate on the tent of Igor Dyatlov's group. The leftmost picture shows the situation before the tragedy: "dyulovtsy" during the installation of the tent inadvertently "cut" the layer of snow, creating a snow wall above the slope. The figure in the center shows a shift of a snow layer 0.5 m thick or even larger, and on the right - a situation after the shift. It can be well seen that the gathering of a considerable mass of snow dumps the tent in such a way that its left slope, which is turned upwards along the slope, covers the people lying inside like a blanket. At the same time, the roof ridge "k" with a slope width of ~ 1.4 m is shifted to the area of the knees of snow-covered tourists. Even if the "woodpeckers" who were in the snow captivity had the opportunity to lie on their backs to cut the roof of the tent (which in itself is very doubtful), they would have incised cuts to the left of the entrance of the ramp, and not the right, as was the case in reality. From this scheme it is clear that the "avalanche" version is not able to explain the appearance of incisions on the slope, which is turned down along the slope.
4) "Avalanche" explains the presence of small, mostly horizontal, roof incisions in that the tourists hurried to check the thickness of the snow falling on them and let the air into the tent. However, a significant part of these sections for some reason was grouped near the entrance to the tent, ie, in the part that did not suffer from the avalanche;
5) The selectivity of the traumatic effects on Dubinina, Zolotarev and Thibault Brignol is completely incomprehensible, unless we consider that the source of this impact was in fact an inanimate avalanche. Zolotaryov, in order to get the fractures of the ribs described by him on the median-axillary line, he had to be in the position of "lying on his left side." But in this situation, he could not avoid injuring his right hand. Even if he had laid his hand behind his head, the fall of a plate about half a ton on him inevitably had to break also the bones of his hand. In other words, when the body is positioned "on its side", the overlying arm is much easier to injure than the ribs. However, Zolotaryov's hand remained intact. With the damages of Lyudmila Dubinina, the picture looks even more incredible. Fractures of its edges were the result of at least a double application of considerable force at various positions of the body ("on the back" and "lying on the right side"). Agree, you must have a very imaginative imagination to imagine an avalanche rolling twice on the same place on the slope. Not an avalanche, but just some boy on a sled! About the camera lens, supposedly pressed into the temple of Nicholai Thibaut, this essay has already been mentioned. The depression of 3 cm by 8.5 cm does not correspond to the size of the lens, but there is no better explanation for "avalanche": solid objects (like ax ax) are not suitable because of the discrepancy between shape and size, and hollow (such as mugs or flasks) due to low form stability. In other words, a mug or a flask, being under the head of a person, would simply be crushed;
6) The transportation of the tourists affected by the avalanche to the Lozva Valley was absolutely impossible in those conditions. All the arguments on this topic should be recognized as idle speculation, and historical parallels - incorrect. Lyudmila Dubinina with a hemorrhage to the heart muscle would have died right on the slope in a matter of minutes, Thibault-Brignol was unconscious since the trauma and could not move independently. Yes, and Semen Zolotaryov with numerous fractures 5 edges also could not move independently and needed help. With all the desire, the 6 remaining tourists had no chance to lower down the slope of three immobilized comrades and ensure their subsequent transportation to the ravine, the construction of a flooring there, the preparation of firewood for the fire, and then the ascent along the slope towards the tent (do not forget that some of the " dyatlovtsev "moved back up the hill). Search engines unanimously spoke about the absence of signs of dragging in the vicinity of the track on the slope, and the number of pairs of legs that left traces clearly exceeded 6;
7) The avalanche, easily crushing the bones of at least three members of Igor Dyatlov's group, miraculously did not crumple flasks, buckets, prefabricated stove, chimney pipes and aluminum mugs of the group members. These were all thin-walled products with low form stability, some of which (chimney pipes) could be flattened even by a child. Selectivity avalanche, ruthlessly mutilated people, but very prudently not affected the mentioned metal products, can not but cause extreme surprise;
8) Even if we consider that the avalanche really buried under half of the tent of the "dyatlovtsev", their departure from it down the slope looks completely meaningless. From the alpinist experience it is known that after the first avalanche, a repeated storm is possible (since a redistribution of the load takes place in the snow dome), but escape from this threat not by going down, but by leaving sideways. In this case, it seemed optimal to nominate the group not to the valley of the river, but to the pass, towards the labaz. The "avalanche version" does not explain the reason for the obviously suboptimal and even deadly mistaken choice of the direction of motion;
Seeing the avalanche in front of you, the first thing that comes to mind is to run away and free her way. This urge is instinctive and understandable to anyone. Here is an analogy with a racing car. Seeing the car rushing at us, we are not trying to run in front of it - we are trying to rather move away from the direction of its movement. And this logic is intuitively obvious not only to the person, but also to any domestic animal who has seen the car in motion. However, the "avalanche" version of Mr. Buyanov simply tries to convince us that the Dyatlov group turned out to be more stupid than dogs and chickens. In his opinion, the tourists, who were affected by the avalanche, decided to run away from the new avalanche, not to the side of the direction of the descent, but in the very direction in this direction.
9) Finally, the "avalanche version" does not provide an explanation for another very important fact that should not be overlooked when analyzing the actions of members of the Dyatlov group. Many of them kept diaries and had written materials, and Alexander Kolevatov, who was deceased in the general opinion as one of the last, made notes in his notebook almost at every parking lot. Since the death of the members of the group was not instantaneous and far from rapid, it is impossible to understand why none of them left any records explaining what had happened. Kolevatov's diary was never found, although Yuri Yudin saw him in this campaign. The reference to the frozen hands (and as a consequence - the inability to hold a pencil) can not be considered an explanation, since the simplest text can not be difficult to write, even holding the pencil with your teeth. As a suitable example, it can be recalled that sailors from the Kursk, which were locked in the 9th compartment, left at least one of the two notes, not only in conditions of sharply lowered temperature, but also in the absence of light.
The thesis refuting the "avalanche version" can be multiplied further, but it is written enough to tell confidently: on February 1, 1959, everything was completely different!
If the avalanche is a phenomenon although relatively rare, but still more or less familiar to most people, then other natural-natural versions appeal to such natural anomalies, of which few people know at all. The authors are inventing a kind of "magic wand", which is arbitrarily endowed with special inexplicable properties that affect people in the way they want. Every time the name of the "magic wand" changes, but the mechanism for constructing the version remains the same - the element affects people, depriving them of all reason and willpower, causing tourists to panic and run out of the tent undressed and stripped, looking for salvation in the cold.
As a natural phenomenon, which is the impetus of dramatic events, these versions include infrasound, winter thunderstorm, ball lightning, etc. phenomena. The infrasound was born, ostensibly, when the remains of the rocks were blowing out at the pass, now named Diatlov, by a strong wind. Winter storm formed at the junction of two atmospheric fronts over the Ural Mountains. And where the ball lightning came from, even the authors themselves do not know, because the nature of the origin of ball moths is unknown to anyone at all.
With all the richness of the choice of the difference between these versions there is almost no - it's more a set of myths from the category of children's horror stories. No one has ever heard rocky remnants give birth to infrasound, but even if this effect does take place, its effect on the human body is greatly exaggerated. It is known that astronauts at the launch of a carrier rocket are in the zone of powerful infrasonic stimulation with a frequency of 5-7 Hz, produced by turbo-pump units and pumped through the missile's pipelines with significant amounts of fuel. During this infrasonic exposure, they experience unpleasant physiological symptoms (in particular, they complain that they feel the movement of the internal organs). However, this does not affect the adequacy of the perception of the environment and the ability to control oneself. The natural wind, no matter how strong it may be, is clearly incapable of generating an infrasonic wave of higher power than a rocket engine, so it's completely unclear why the tourists in the tent should have been distraught and lose all self-control when they are in the infrasound field. Even the most unpleasant symptoms of infrasound originating from natural sources can hardly be stronger than a toothache, and then, as they say, aspirin helps! Tales of ghost ships, whose crews allegedly rushed overboard, yielded to the impact of infrasound, never found confirmation - this is the same myth-making of naive dreamers as infrasound in the Ural remnants.
In this connection, it is possible to recall the "acoustic cannon" created by Israeli military specialists in this century, which was used as a non-lethal weapon in some spetsnaz operations. In theory, it was believed that the guns generated by powerful sounds of a wide range of frequencies would force terrorists to leave their shelters. The gun was lifted by a crane to such a height that the object being attacked by the Israeli special forces was in the focus of acoustic impact. The sound power of the Israeli "miracle weapon" surpassed the volume of the aviational turbine, and the infrasonic frequencies were also in the range of the generated signal. And what? It turned out that despite the unpleasant sensations generated by the sound of the "acoustic cannon", people for many hours and even days endure its impact and retain full control over their behavior.
The ball lightning and winter storm as a source of danger are just as exotic as infrasound. Ball lightning, moreover, is also extremely rare, it is believed that with her there is only one person out of a million. Running away from ball lightning, cutting a tent, without shoes and mittens - a solution, frankly, not optimal or even unobvious. Escaping from it, where it would be more logical to throw into a fireball some object - bucket, ax, felt boots. By the way, there are cases when ball lightning could be driven away by directing a long elongated object to it, for example a branch or a shovel (this is probably due to the accumulation of a static charge of electricity at its end in the presence of ball lightning, or rather difficult to say, because a single harmonious physical theory , explaining the birth and behavior of this type of lightning, yet does not exist). For us, it is important that the ball lightning is a short-lived object, its lifetime is calculated literally in several tens of seconds and therefore it is completely incomprehensible why the Dyatlov group had to run away when it appeared a half kilometer from the tent.
In addition, the versions of the "winter storm" and "ball lightning" do not explain the trauma of the members of the group. More precisely, they can not explain the physical injuries of some members of the group by natural causes resulting from the nature of the version of threat declared by the supporters. To somehow overcome this inconsistency, a rather clumsy explanation was invented, according to which Rustem Slobodin was killed because of falls on the slope of Holchahl during the descent, and Zolotaryov, Tibault and Dubinin fell on the very stone where their bodies were found by search engines in May . The fact that this stone in February had to cover a multimeter layer of snow is ignored. Rather, it is proved that February in the North Urals is the snowiest month, but November and January are the driest, because, they say, the bottom of the ravine was practically free of snow. As it was found in the thickness of snow flooring just a few meters to the south, it is impossible to understand, but in the minds of supporters of the natural-elemental versions of this contradiction is getting along perfectly. Yes, and the strange "fall" 4 of the 9 members of the group, which led to their rapid death, also does not cause surprise to these researchers. In general, to combine incompatible (the initial message and the final result) turns out to be bad for them.
Paranormal versions unite the whole spectrum of hypotheses from obviously fantastic to folklore-mystical ones. This direction is the most boring of all because, with the seeming variety of initial assumptions, the whole logic of evidence is reduced to the introduction into the storyline of a certain "magic wand" arbitrarily solving at the creators' desire all logical problems and discrepancies.
From this category, one can mention the versions of
a) "alien contact" ("yellow balls - alien ships"),
b) cursed Mansi place (bad "energy" places drives people crazy),
c) attack of a snowman,
d) the action of "unclean "Forces (which are understood as lecheas and characters of Mansi folklore), etc.
There are also very exotic hypotheses that synthesize some of the above. A vivid example of this is the highly unconventional version of the prolific journalist Kizilov. The latter believes that the group of Igor Dyatlov was killed as a result of secret experiments of the KGB on the creation of superweapons. For the role of such a "superweapon" author of the version reads "fireballs". Mr. Kizilov has, as it seems to him, a clear idea of the structure of the world around him and the universe in general and has a rare gift to talk about complex things simply, briefly and lapidary. In order to understand what is meant, let us cite several colorful quotes that reveal the depth of penetration of journalist Kizilov into the essence of phenomena: "The nature of wounds allows to assume that experiments were conducted on people: murder by radiation of unknown origin. Two people were killed by exposure to the chest and two people - by the impact on the skull (on the head). Based on modern experiments on humans and animals, which are estimated in total already in the thousands, one can confidently assume that in the late 1950s, The USSR carried out experiments on the destruction of internal organs and the bone apparatus of people by unknown energy emanating from some apparatus mounted on fireballs. The language of Lyudmila Dubinina for the purposes of the experiment could be removed (destroyed) on the astral plane, and on the physical plane disappeared by itself due to the loss of the astral base (...) Astral murder was carried out, little known not only to the broad masses, but also to many physicians. Of course, the murder is rude. "
In general, you read this, and it's difficult to tear yourself away from that bizarre and phantasmagoric picture of the world that the journalist sees. It turns out that "apparatuses on fireballs" already in the fifties were in full swing across the boundless expanse of the country where the TV was still looking through the lens with all the entrance, and even not in every house!
Well, seriously, the lucid statement of the journalist Kizilov's version in the face of the military medical commission in the military enlistment office will really help to avoid calling for active military service. Simply by virtue of the fact that it will cause an official referral for examination to another specialized medical institution.
In general, you can continue for a long time, anomalously surprising versions of the researchers have plucked up a lot, but there is no need to discuss these enchanting games of minds - all such versions are too arbitrary and little correspond with real life. How, for example, Mansiysk Sorni-Ekva to the world of forensic science and forensic medicine can be traumatized by the world, and yet supporters of exotic versions very vividly polemicize about this in relevant forums, and, importantly, understand each other. Indeed, a good "jamb" facilitates understanding and even expands consciousness, but as Comrade Stalin said "this is not our way."
We turn to consideration of the most realistic versions of events on the pass, which refer to the third of the above groups.