About small ears of a large beast. The KGB and the Djatlov group: an unbiased view.
But why this decision was born 3 days after the materials of the radiological examination were brought to the case? Apparently, because such a way out of the current situation, the customer of this very expertise found optimal. He got the result interested in him and decided to cut off all strangers from further work on finding the reasons for the death of tourists. And now it's time to answer the question: who could offer investigator Ivanov, or rather his leadership, to conduct a radiological examination of clothes found in the creek of corpses? In principle, there can be several such instances, but the most likely candidate for the role of "watchful eye" is the KGB.
And we will try to prove it.
There are several indirect arguments in favor of the fact that the State Security Committee has been biased in following the course of the search operation in the Lozva Valley. And not only because the "Office" by the status is supposed to be monitored by military collectives, but because in search of missing tourists the domestic state security had its own special interest, hidden from outside eyes.
Among the dead tourists, we recall, was Georgy Krivonischenko, who worked in the closed Ural city of Ozersk, which at that time bore the disreputable name Chelyabinsk-40 ("fortieth"). It was a city of nuclear scientists, built next to the so-called. plant No. 817, known in the following years as PO Mayak. At six reactors of this plant, weapons-grade plutonium was produced, that is, Krivonischenko was from the category of those people who at that time called the "secret physicist" and moreover uttered these words only in a whisper. Although George graduated from the building faculty and was not a physicist at all in the exact meaning of this word, he certainly had access to state secrets and, simply because of his admission to one of the country's most secret facilities, was a well-informed secret-bearer. By the way, the phrase "secret physicist" mentioned above is almost forgotten now, and in the 1950s and 1960s it was widespread and was always used with sincere and respectful overtones. Belonging to the cohort of the creators of nuclear weapons and rocket technology meant then to be part of the elite of society. The Soviet people knew that somewhere in secret places hidden from the eyes of spies and outsiders, "secret physicists and missilemen" live and work, they create a rocket-nuclear shield of the Motherland and this is the best people in the country! The fact that most of the creators of the most modern weapons live right at their side and often walk the same streets, Soviet people could not even think. To understand the degree of extreme secrecy of rocket nuclear development will help the story of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev: that he is the General Designer of space and rocket technology, his relatives, with the exception of his wife, learned only after the death of Korolev! While he was alive, all relatives considered him to be a civil engineer, traveling around the construction of the national economy, no one had ever seen him with orders, let alone the stars of the Hero of Socialist Labor (they had two). This is not at all modesty - this kind of closeness, even from the closest people, was in those years one of the essential elements of the state secrecy regime.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev - Chief Designer of Soviet missiles. Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin - the first person to fly into space.
When Georgy Krivonischenko, who went on a camping trip with a group of Djatlov, did not go to work, he certainly had to miss it. Not so much as colleagues, how many employees of the department (service) of the regime. Still - the disappearance of the secret bearer, let alone the second category of admission (to the secret documents) is an enterprise-wide emergency, at least! The reasons for the absence should begin to be checked, and a formal explanation - the participation in the campaign of Sverdlovsk students "Polytech" - should have caused a reasonable mistrust. Counterintelligence always and in everything sees the worst, distrust for an employee of this profile - a professional trait. And then there is an infantile explanation - a hike in the mountains with students with whom the disappeared engineer did not even study (we will specify that George graduated from Polytech in the summer of 1957, that is, more than a year and a half before the campaign)!
And now we remember that Georgy Krivonischenko was not the only secret-bearer in the composition of the tour group. There was one more employee of deep-regime production - Rustem Slobodin. And in relation to him, everything that has been said above is just as true as in regard to George. So there are twice as many reasons to worry about guardsmen.
Let's look at the situation through the eyes of a professional counterintelligence officer: is the long winter trip strange? Is it suspicious? And how! And suddenly the "tourist" is just a "legend" for a potential traitor to the Motherland! Suddenly the group left without Krivonischenko, or without Slobodin, or did any of them separate from the group and are now on their way to the Chinese border, hiding top-secret materials on Russian nuclear technologies in their backpack? Or to Iran? Or to Turkey, which, by the way, is a member of NATO? Or to meet with some Western intelligence agent? What to do counterintelligence in this situation, wait until the group of Djatlov leaves the forest? So it may not go out at all if the traitor of the Motherland took care of the poison ... The first question that is solved in the disappearance of a secretor is the establishment of a list of information materials and documentation to which he had access, with whom he worked or took for familiarization. The form of the secret library is examined, the workplace is inspected, a search is conducted at the place of residence, connections are opened ... And in the process of this work, counterintelligence agents were to detect radioactive trousers and sweaters in Krivonischenko's house.
Thus. The fact of a gross violation of the secrecy regime surfaced. Clothing carrying the radioactive traces of a top-secret production should not leave the regime territory. Because these tracks are unique, isotope microspheres (the so-called "tails") carry in themselves exhaustive information about what and how exactly reactors are produced. In the eyes of foreign intelligence services, these tracks are more valuable than the most secret maps of the General Staff. Moreover, we do not forget that we are talking about the late 1950s, when the USSR's nuclear potential for Western intelligence services was a real "incognito terra." This was to be the logic of domestic counterintelligence in February 1959, when they learned about the disappearance of "his" secreteness - George Krivonischenko - as part of Igor Dyatlov's group. The fact that they searched for him and was instituted a corresponding search case is not subject to doubt; another thing is that they will never write about it on the Internet and those who know do not tell about the search.
Stop! the attentive reader will say in this place, and what about Georgi Krivonischenko? He was not in the ravine, his body was found one of the first, under the cedar, along with Yuri Doroshenko! What can be the connection with the strange radiological examination, appointed after two and a half months?
Communication is direct! That's just the point, that when the body of Krivonischenko was found under the cedar expertise, there was absolutely no need to conduct it. Georgiy was stripped to the pants (he was wearing, like a shirt, a shirt, cowboy, swimming trunks and pants). One glance at him was enough to understand - the deceased was stripped, and he was undressed not by the tourists who were found on the slope (those were dressed in their clothes), but the last four. The radiological examination in March was completely useless, as her client (ie, the KGB) knew exactly which parts of the clothes would carry radioactive dust! It should have been sweaters and pants, not found under the cedar.
It was they who were searching for the search engines, getting out of their last strength, throughout March and April. The State Security Committee demanded to clarify the fate of clothes with traces of isotopic dust - people were searching for it carefully, Ortyukov's people, thinking that they were looking for bodies. Ivan Ivanov, the investigator thought the same, nobody dedicated it to the true background of the strange perseverance of the leadership of the regional prosecutor's office.
And that we have confirmation. There are vague memories of the participants of the search operation, according to which in early March 1959 a search appliance was brought to a search facility for corpses. This device, allegedly, was able to find human remains under the ground, water and snow of great thickness and its delivery from Moscow was specially ordered to speed up the process of searching for four bodies that were not found before. In the sense of these memories, they are a portable gas analyzer capable of detecting gases seeping through the ground and snow, formed as a result of the decomposition of human bodies.
The explanation seems to be beautiful. It is known that the decomposition of human flesh (as, indeed, the rotting of any organic matter) is the allocation of so-called. putrefactive gases, which include mercaptan, methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide. The specific smell of decaying flesh is explained by the presence of mercaptan and in principle it is possible to construct a device capable of detecting in the air combinations of these gases indicating the presence of a nearby corpse somewhere nearby. The idea of creating gas analyzers, "confined" to detect rotting remains, really began to speak out in the 50's. the last century. But the implementation of this scheme turned out to be extremely complicated in practice. First of all, the sensitivity of such devices should be above the sense of smell of the dog, otherwise the creation of such a device is devoid of any basis. In terms of modern terms, this should be a "hi-tec laboratory", not only very sensitive, but also compact, comparable in weight to the lawnmower (we do not forget about such essential requirements for such a device as portability and operator wearing ability!). Now, gas analyzers to search for remains are quite common and, by the way, they are used not only by law enforcement agencies, but also by various rescue services. But for the late 50's. it was a real fantasy, because it was the era of tube electrical equipment with the appropriate circuitry, incredible power consumption, and the mass-scale indicators of this kind of device generally deprived it of any practical value.
However, we must admit that nothing about domestic gas analyzers, designed to detect corpses and created in the 50's. last century, I never heard. Attempts to make inquiries on this topic were unsuccessful (we will be grateful if one of the readers will provide information on this matter). The first reliably known case of using special equipment in the USSR to search for a corpse hidden by a criminal refers to April 1969, when a wearable gas analyzer was used to investigate the disappearance of 11-year-old Larissa Evert. The girl disappeared from the veranda of her own cottage on the territory of the village of Vyritsa near Leningrad, as was found out several months later, she was killed by her older brother and buried in the basement of the house at a depth of 1.5 m. The miracle analyzer did not help to find the body, however, dogs from the cynological service of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate under Lengoroblispolkom also turned out to be powerless then.
But between the search for Larissa Evert and the "dyatlovists" case a whole decade, a real era in instrument-making! By 1969, transistors were widely used, and therefore the portable "corpse detector" ceased to be fiction, although it remained a very exotic "device", in all losing to ordinary dogs. By the way, the device used in the search for the corpse of Larissa Evert was not a domestic development, but the Germany "Robotron" (and German comrades copied it from Western counterparts).
That is why the mention of the "corpse detector" on the slope of Holatchahl, allegedly delivered there in the spring of 1959 directly from Moscow, initially caused only bewilderment, and then forced to think. Moreover, in the first volume of the criminal case there is a request from investigator Ivanov with a request to provide search engines with a device for detecting corpses. There is also an answer stating that the administration of the prosecutor's office knows nothing about such devices. So the categorical unbelief in the miracle analyzer seems to find an actual confirmation, but then why did the stories about the mysterious device that had been on the slopes of Kholatchahl in March 1959? It seems that under the device "to search for corpses" something else was clearly concealed.
Everything falls into place, if we recall that among the search engines on the pass for a while remained Kikoin, the youngest of two siblings, nuclear physicists, who participated in the creation of domestic nuclear weapons in the second half of the 40's. Recall, Abram Konstantinovich Kikoin, the younger brother of the well-known Isaak Konstantinovich, came to participate in the search operation on March 6, 1959 (which was briefly mentioned in the present essay). He headed a group of mountaineers Sverdlovsk "Polytech", which was replaced by the debilitating work of students Slobtsov. Abraham Kikoin was 45 years old shortly before this mission, he was a candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, from 1957 he worked as head of the radiation laboratory of the Institute of Metal Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Nothing can be helped, a serious post, a well-deserved scholar. And his elder brother - Isaak Konstantinovich, Hero of Socialist Labor and four times the winner of the Stalin Prize - was at that time the scientific leader of Combine No. 813, on which weapons-grade uranium was enriched. The combine was located near the "closed" city of Novouralsk (Sverdlovsk-44), about 70 km north of Sverdlovsk. Along with Chelyabinsk-40, in which Krivonischenko worked, this is another "nuclear city" in the Urals, where the "nuclear sword" of the Land of Soviets was forged.
So, on March 6, a specialist on radioactive materials appeared on the slope of Holatchahl, tightly connected with the state security for at least the last 15 years of his life. And he appeared in the post of the head of the group! It is noteworthy that Abram Konstantinovich Kikoin, even formally, had nothing to do with Sverdlovsk Polytech after 1952 (before that time he headed the Department of General Physics there). And now, after the appearance of Kikoin, a strange device is brought from Moscow, which, allegedly, will help find the corpses under the snow. Only here instruments such as it was already said, then did not exist.
Therefore, it seems that in fact in March 1959 the search engines were brought a portable indicator of radioactivity, as would say now "professional" (then the technique of this kind was called "industrial"). To work with this device Abram Kikoyin, perhaps not he alone, but with a partner, also a physicist of the appropriate profile. And to look for an indicator of radioactivity was the pants and sweaters of George Krivonischenko. This work could not be entrusted to soldiers of internal troops or students for a variety of reasons. First, none of the outsiders should have known that in the area of the death of the group they are looking for something radioactive. Secondly, the device itself was a secret device to which even the military could not be allowed to admit (the military had its own technique for this purpose, extremely simplified, designed to be used in areas with a clear and, moreover, significant excess of the natural radioactive background). Thirdly, only an expert with the proper experience could work with an industrial sensor. Radioactivity is a very specific phenomenon, radionuclides are distributed in space and are transferred from place to place very whimsically, unevenly. Only a specialist with proper experience knows where and how best to find them.
Of course, Abram Konstantinovich Kikoin with his unknown assistant did not wander blindly through forests and ravines, "listening" to many meters of snowdrifts. He knew perfectly well that snow of great thickness perfectly shields alpha and beta radiation. Most likely, their work was based on determining the degree of "contamination" of streams, melt water flowing down the slopes. From the second half of March in the area of Holatchahl began melting snow, so that the water became more and more. The calculation, apparently, was based on the fact that having discovered a "dirty" creek, a specialist could correctly determine the direction to the source of radioactive contamination, which would allow him to quickly find this source. This calculation was not justified - Mansi Kurikov with his dog indicated the right direction faster and more accurately ...
By the way, there is one more - the second in a row - the argument in favor of the fact that some well-informed instance knew about the presence of radioactive clothes in Georgy Krivonischenko. In this essay it was mentioned that his (the only one of the first five found tourists) was buried in the Ivanovskoye cemetery, which was closed by that time. For Krivonischenko an exception was made and a grave was allowed in a closed cemetery. Only here there is in this magnanimous permission of the city authorities a small discrepancy - George's parents did not ask for this. There is another strange inconvenience - Krivonischenko was the only one of the first group who was buried in a closed coffin. The coffin for parting was not allowed to open (no one knows!), Although there were no objective reasons for this, it seems. In general, Georgy Krivonischenko's body did not look worse than the others, but Zina Kolmogorova, with a terribly changed skin color and face injuries, was buried in an open coffin, but George, for some reason, was never shown to friends and family.
Funeral of tourists from the Dyatlov's group
Comment on this point is hardly necessary. It is said enough ...
In addition to the stories about the non-existent "corpse detector" and the strange circumstances of Georgy Krivonischenko's funeral, there is one more indirect confirmation of the KGB's knowledge about the presence of radioactive materials among the tourists of the Djatlov group. There are memories of the already mentioned in this essay Vladimir Ivanovich Korotaev, who is starting then the worker of the Ivdel Prosecutor's Office, about how the forensic medical examination of bodies of tourists found in the ravine was conducted in May 1959. According to Korotaev, a 200-liter barrel with alcohol was delivered to the prison mortuary, in which everyone who was present at the autopsy was rinsed (literally "dipped"). Precautions, frankly, very strange, which is never resorted to in the anatomy of corpses. Pathologists as early as the 50's. They worked in tall, to elbows, rubber gloves, thick and coarse, not like ordinary surgical ones. They can not be accidentally pierced and cut through with a tool, so that the barrel of alcohol, as a means of disinfection, even then seemed something out of the ordinary. However, according to Korotaev, the barrel was delivered and all seven people present at the autopsy conscientiously rinsed in it. Although they themselves did not really know why - they were just advised to do this (who, when, and for what? -to understand plainly from Korotayev's story is impossible, he is too confused and in some places seems unreliable).
The story with a barrel of alcohol in the morgue seems completely inexplicable, if you do not take into account the nuance that is unclear to the modern inhabitants of Russia. In the 50's. the last century, in the conditions of universal limitations in the means and the absence of even elementary things (let us recall the sleeping bags that the "Dyatlovites" did not have), alcohol was looked upon as a panacea for almost all diseases. It was believed that alcohol is especially good at destroying dust. In those days, submarine crews were given an alcohol mug and a cotton swab once a week for wiping. This is not a joke, it was then believed that alcohol would wash off radioactive dust from the body better than ordinary water. Young sailors were explained: "red wine removes isotopes from the interior of the body, and alcohol - is washed off the skin." It looks like such a disinfection, of course, archaic, but what was - it was, from the song of words you can not throw out ...
In our case, the state was more generous - it allocated as much a barrel of alcohol! We, however, are interested in another: who could have bothered about this barrel ahead of time, before the radiological examination? Who was so perspicacious?
The answer can be one: only one who knew that among the things of dead tourists should be radioactive. Or, at least, had every reason to believe that they should be. It should not be forgotten that a barrel of alcohol at that time in such a bearish corner as Ivdel is a real treasure, for which it was possible to have a lot of material benefits, and it was so easy to find it. It is hardly a mistake if we assume that in a tiny Ivdel there was not at all a barrel of alcohol, it obviously had to be carried specially from Serov, or even from Sverdlovsk. Nevertheless, the administrative resource of our knowledgeable instance was enough to find in the open spaces of the Sverdlovsk region an extra barrel of alcohol and quickly deliver it to the prison morgue ...
This "knowledgeable authority" tried to stay unnoticed and leave no obvious traces. She succeeded in this - from the criminal case, which was conducted by Lev Nikitovich Ivanov, the interest of the KGB in a certain outcome of the investigation is not visible. However, the "ears" of the Committee still look, as they do not hide. And then we will show that there are quite a lot of "ears" of these (in terms of more literary and non-cut ends).
But following the logic of our narrative, we are not going to delve into this direction, but we will touch on another topic: the existing versions of what happened on the slope of Holat-Syahyl. And only after showing and proving the inconsistency of all available at the moment explanations of the tragedy that occurred on February 1, 1959, will we offer the reader his own - logical and consistent version of events.