Football in Russia is the most popular sport. The largest number of people among the population of Russia are fans of this sport.
After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, former republics that were part of the USSR began to conduct their own independent football competitions. The higher league of the championship of Russia was created practically from zero. In the top league of the USSR championship in 1991, there were only six Russian teams: the capital's CSKA, Spartak, Torpedo, Dynamo and Lokomotiv, as well as the Vladimir Spartak, and Lokomotiv, which took the last 16- he had to leave the big league after the championship. As a result, 20 clubs were gathered for participation in the Higher League, adding to these six eleven teams from the first union league.
The Premier League (RFPL) was organized in 2001 on the basis of the Higher Division. The difference is that the Higher Division was managed by the Professional Football League, and the creation of the Premier League allowed the clubs to get a greater degree of independence. The first champion of the Premier League was "Locomotive" (Moscow), beating in 2002 in the Golden Match PFC CSKA.
Since 1998, 16 teams have invariably participated in the tournament (in 1992 - 20 (held in two stages), in 1993 - 18, in 1994-1995 - 16, in 1996-1997 - 18). In 1993 it was held and in 2012, after the end of the season, again held in the form of play-offs (in 1993 - in the form of a group one-round tournament) a transitional tournament between the teams of the Higher (FPL) and the First (FNL) divisions, where two teams participate (in 1993 year - three) teams from the said divisions / leagues.
The tournament was created in 2008 instead of the doubles tournament of the Premier League. The main difference from that competition is the rule according to which from each team on the field there must be at least seven pupils of the club. Legionnaires, as well as footballers born before December 31, 1987, can only be represented by three field players and one goalkeeper. At the same time, participation of players from the main club team, even those disqualified in the main championship, is not prohibited. Traditionally, the calendar of games of the youth championship is tied to the calendar of the Premier League: matches are played the day before the games of the main teams in the championship. Accordingly, the scheme of the games is the same as in the Premier League: two rounds of 15 games. The participation of the Premier League club in the youth championship is mandatory. Until 2001, when the doubles tournament was formed, duplicating teams of clubs had the opportunity to participate in zonal tournaments of the lowest professional level (Second and Third PFL leagues) without the right to transfer to a higher division.
In all of its time, the youth championship / doubles tournament in the system of professional leagues is not included.
National Football League Championship:
The championship of the Football National League (FNL Championship) is the second most powerful division of professional football in Russia. The competitions are organized by the Football National League, and until 2011 by the Professional Football League. The current name is from 2011, before that was called "First League", "First Division".
The structure of the first division has changed many times. In 1992, the first league consisted of three zones ("West", "Center" - 18 teams, "East" - 16), the winners of which directly fell into the big leagues. In 1993, the number of teams in the zones ("West" - 22, "Center" - 20, "Vostok" - 16) changed and the rules of the draw (the winners of the zones got the right to participate in the transition tournament with the teams ranked 14-16 in the Major League ). In the future, a single tournament was held, only the number of teams changed (1994-1999 - 22, 2000 - 20, 2001-2002 - 18, 2003-2008 - 22, from 2009 - 20,). Due to financial problems for a number of teams, in 2012-2015 in the league participated from 17 to 19 teams. Currently, the championship consists of 20 clubs.
Championship of the Professional Football League:
The championship of the Professional Football League (PFL Championship) is the third most powerful professional football division in Russia. Competitions are organized by the Professional Football League, and in 2011-2012 - the Russian Football Union (DFR RFS). Previously, he was called "Second Division" ("Second Division PFL"), "Second League".
The championship of PFL is divided on a geographical basis by five (in 1998-2002 - six, earlier, in 1992-1997 - from three to seven) zones (from the season-2016/17 - groups): "West", "Center" "South", "Ural-Volga region" (from the season-2016/17 - "Ural-Privolzhie", in 1998-2002 there were two zones: "Ural" and "Volga region") and "East". The number of clubs in the zones varies every year. In 2008, 83 teams were declared in the division.
The winner of each zone receives the right to transition to the FNL Championship. The clubs that occupy the last places in the zones lose their professional status and are transferred to the Third Division (LFL) (however, if the league meets requirements, the team can stay in the PFL Championship). Competitions are usually held in two rounds, however in some cases cases (for example, with a small number of participants) a tournament is held in three (four) circles or in two stages. From 2003 to 2010 after the end of the season, the winners of the zones participated in the tournament for the PFL Cup, during which the absolute champion of the Second Division was determined.
Third Division (LFL):
The championship of Russia among amateur football clubs (the Third Division, previously also used the names of the Championship of Russia among the KFK (KFK - collectives of physical culture) and the Amateur Football League) is an annual competition for non-professional football clubs taking place in Russia. It unites ten interregional zones, in which competitions are held in groups
As of 2011, the Amateur Football League (an all-Russian public organization, established on October 15, 2003) is responsible for the competitions, which is founded by the Russian Football Union and ten interregional associations of Russian federations (MPOs).
They unite 79 regional federations of football of the Russian Federation. Presidents of the MPOs of the federations of football are members of the Council of the Amateur Football League.
Cup competitions of Russia
Cup of Russia:
The Cup of Russia on football is an annual competition for Russian football clubs, conducted by the Russian Football Union. In the Cup are eligible to participate in non-amateur football clubs, as well as amateur football clubs - winners of regional LFL competitions that have passed attestation in PFL. The winner of the Cup before the beginning of the next season plays with the champion of Russia in the Super Cup, and also gets the right to perform in the European League.
Premier League Cup:
The Cup of the Russian Premier League is a football competition organized by the Premier League. The first and so far the only time he was held in the 2003 season.
All 16 Premier League teams participated in the competition. The cup was held on a system with elimination, in each round of the team played two matches. The winner of the Cup did not receive the right to participate in the UEFA Cup, and the games were played on the days of the national team matches, so most clubs put on reserve teams for the games. The competition was not popular, and in the next season the Premier League refused to hold it.
The winner of the tournament was St. Petersburg Zenit, who won the Novorossiysk Chernomorets in the final with a score of 5-2 on the sum of two matches.
Russian Super Cup:
The Russian Super Cup is a soccer competition consisting of a single match in which the Russian Cup winner and the champion of Russia of the previous season play. In the event that the Cup and the championship was won by one team, the first and second team of the championship play in the Super Bowl.
It has been played since 2003, the winners of the Championship and the Cup of 2002 took part. In eight of the nine matches, the Super Bowl was won by the champions of last season, and it was only in 2009 that the Russian Cup winner Moscow CSKA won the Super Cup, interrupting the champions of Russia for the year.
Match for the Super Bowl officially opens the next football season in Russia (although in the current calendar year, the Russian team can already hold more than one match in European competition or in the new Cup of the country), usually a week before the first round of the championship. The participation of clubs in the Higher Division is compulsory; if the owner of the Cup of Russia becomes a club of another division, this club is obliged to confirm its participation in the Super Cup before the determined date. If the main time of the match ends in a draw, then an additional is appointed - 2 half-time for 15 minutes each. If, on the outcome of additional time, the winner is not identified, a penalty shoot-out is assigned.
The Super Bowl is a passing prize. In exchange for the passing prize, a copy of it is handed for ever. In the event of a club winning a rolling prize 3 times in a row or 5 times in total, the prize remains in this club forever. This was successful for CSKA Moscow, which won six Super Cups. The last cup they took in the match with Rostov 3: 1.
The first professional football club in Russia was the team "Kolomna " from the city of Kolomna in the Moscow region, which was established in 1906 at the machine-building plant of the Struve brothers (the present Kolomzavod), the first football team in the city - KGO (Kolomenskoye The Gymnastics Society "). In 1907, KGO held its first international match with the players of the British Sports Union, the result of that meeting was 3: 1 in favor of Kolomna. Now the football club Kolomna acts in the second division, zone "West".
In 1910, the English came to Russia for a football match. From the factory engineers, a football team was established in the city of Orekhovo-Zuevo. Date is formed of the football team "Morozovtsy" in 1910 - later the Fulda Cup was won. At the moment as a professional football club "Morozovtsi" does not exist.
At the dawn of development the most massive was football "wild." Fans of playing football for lack of football fields had to be satisfied with vacant lots and outskirts. The gates were built from nothing - stones, caps, jackets. They played in what: in boots, in boots, and even barefoot. A lot of such "wild" teams were on Khodynka. In the history of the "wild" a significant place is occupied by the Rogozhskaya outpost. On the working outskirts arose the Rogozhsky Sports Club - RKS.
October 24, 1897 was the first official match in the Russian Empire. He took place in St. Petersburg between the teams "Sport" (St. Petersburg sports fans) and "Vasileostrovsky soccer players". The victory with a score of 6-0 was celebrated by the second team.
In 1912, the All-Russian Football Union was created (Robert Fulda was one of the initiators, in 1914-1915 was its chairman). In the same year, the Russian Empire team first came to the largest then the football tournament: the Olympics in Sweden. There she took the 4th place, losing on June 30 in her very first match in the history of Finland 1-2 and the German national team 0-16.
In total, before the formation of the USSR, the team played eight matches, in addition to playing with the Finns and the Germans there were meetings with Norway 1-2 and 1-1 (goals scored by Zhitarev, Sysoev and Krotkov), Hungary 0-12, Sweden 1-4 and 2-2 (3 - Zhitarev).
Football was gaining more and more popularity, by 1915 there were already over 150 teams in the country.
Russian national football team
The Russian national football team is a team representing Russia at international football competitions. Managed by the Russian Football Union - the country's leading governing football body. The Russian Football Union has been a member of FIFA since 1912, and UEFA since 1954. The Russian national team is a full-fledged successor to the Russian Empire, the RSFSR, the USSR and the CIS.
The Russian team is a participant of four world championships (1994, 2002, 2014, 2018) and five European championships (1996, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016). As hostess of the tournament, the national team also participated in the Confederations Cup 2017. The highest achievements are the 3rd place in the European Championships 2008 and the 1/4 finals at the 2018 World Cup.
The greatest number of matches for the national team was played by Sergei Ignashevich - 126; the best scorer of the national team - Alexander Kerzhakov (30 goals). The current captain of the team is Artyom Dzyuba. The head coach of the team - Stanislav Cherchesov, appointed to this post on August 10, 2016.
As of August 16, 2018, the Russian team in the FIFA rankings is 49th, and in the UEFA rating on October 11, 2017 - the 15th
The team does not have a permanent stadium. The team hosts home matches at various arenas throughout the country. Matches of the national team were most often held in the stadiums of Moscow. In Moscow, the first home game against Mexico was held on August 16, 1992.
The largest arenas for international matches are stadiums Luzhniki (81,000 seats) and St. Petersburg (56,196 seats). Before the reconstruction of the Luzhniki Stadium in 2013-2017 the record of attendance of the Russian national team was established on October 17, 2007 in Moscow - 78 000 spectators attended the match against the England team.
In 2013-2017 the stadium "Luzhniki" was closed for reconstruction to the World Cup 2018. November 11, 2017 in a friendly match between the national teams of Russia and Argentina (0: 1), which was held at the stadium "Luzhniki", was updated record attendance at home matches of the national team. In the stands were attended by 78 750 spectators. This match was the first after a large-scale reconstruction of the arena. June 14, 2018 at the opening match of the 2018 World Cup against Saudi Arabia (5: 0) was attended by 78,011 spectators. In 2018, he received seven World Cup soccer matches (4 group stage games, a 1/8 final match, one of the semifinal matches and the final match).