Why did the scouts not notice the straight road to the flooring in the ravine? The answers may be several and the first, which comes to mind as an explanation - poor visibility (darkness, possible snowfall), variable terrain of the wooded area (bushes and trees prevented to assess the overall picture of the crime scene) and finally, clutter of the adjacent territory with "extra" traces. If the assumption about active actions in the cedar area of at least 5-6 members of Igor Dyatlov's group is fair, it is clear that the result of their activities was a large number of various tracks - these could be broken branches and traces of their drawing, and finally, chaotic tracks feet. This "trace noise" in a certain way could prevent foreign intelligence officers from figuring out where the remnants of the group left. In addition, we do not know what the strength of the wind was on the hillock near the cedar, it is possible that the traces of interest to the killers were, at that time, blown up by the snow. There is another consideration that should be borne in mind - the direct track to the creek in the ravine at that time could simply not exist. Zolotaryov, going to create a "lezhki", most likely did not go there directly, but "along the arc" walked along the adjacent to the cedar forest area, choosing the best place. Shoes and clothes allowed him to make such a walk without any particular inconvenience. And if Nikolai Thibault-Brignol (as another shod member of the group) was also looking for a place to hide, the tracks from the cedar could divide in several directions with a fan, which of course prevented the pursuers from determining the correct direction of the search for the departed.
In any case, foreign scouts took a wrong track from the cedar and initially went not to the side of the flooring. The survivors used this "puncture" of the enemy rationally - making sure that the killers retired, at least two of the four tourists left their shelter and went out to the cedar to take advantage of the clothes of their dead comrades. It was then that the Krivonischenko corpse was removed from the Chinese sweater and trousers, "sharovary", which had radioactive dust and intended for a failed transfer to foreign agents. In addition to this, Georgy was removed and black cotton pants, dressed under trousers. It was partially stripped and Doroshenko's body - he was pulled off his pants and cardigan. Perhaps, some great things were removed from the dead - it's impossible to say this because we do not know what they were wearing. The men moved the body of George Krivonischenko several meters away from the cedar, laying it next to Yuri Doroshenko - it was the fact of such a posthumous transfer and explains the strange arrangement of corpses at first glance (Krivonischenko is parallel to Doroshenko, but his right leg is sideways and abandoned in the leg the latter). During the carrying of the body, a cotton sock slipped from Krivonischenko's right foot (apparently, his foot was caught at the very edge of his heel), and of course, no one began to put this sock back on the corpse - he was simply thrown into the fire.
The location of bodies of the dead at the cedar Georgy Krivonischenko and Yuri Doroshenko clearly indicates the posthumous manipulation of the corpses. The bodies are laid in parallel, the heads are directed in one direction, the crime scene looks ordered. The bodies are not given obscene poses, there are no signs that are characteristic of those "games with corpses", as demonstrated by organized killers. This makes one think that people who endured Krivonischenko's corpse experienced compassion, pity, and respect for the deceased. They were not murderers, they were his companions in misfortune. In the last hour of their lives, these people have been able to improve the posthumous bed of their dead friends.
But this blue sock did not burn out, since it was quite a long time since the fires had died down and the coals had cooled down. This sock is subsequently found by rescuers in a fire - very important evidence that the surviving members of the group returned to the cedar and began their mournful work to undress the bodies of friends after a considerable time after the fading of the fire. If you abandon the non-criminal versions, it is completely unclear what caused this time interval, what was so important in the ravine of the four that did not rush to help the comrades at the cedar, barely noticing the disappearance of the light of the bonfire? Another interesting question arises: why did the group members spend their unpleasant work to strip corpses in the dark? Meanwhile, both questions find logical and reliable explanations, just as soon as we assume that the cedar had some killers and four tourists hiding in the ravine, they simply waited for their departure.
It seems that initially two best dressed men came to the cedar, that is, Simon Zolotaryov and Nikolai Thibault-Brignol. It is quite justified from them to expect the greatest mobility. For this pair, the manipulations with bodies described above-the transfer of Krivonischenko's corpse and the undressing of the bodies of the dead-did not present much difficulty. When this was done, the men moved back to the stream. Along the way, they found that Krivonischenko's black cotton pants had a large burn on the shins. Then the men, without a long thought, had at their disposal a knife, cut their pants in half along the longitudinal seam. They threw up their trouser leg in the forest as unnecessary; there it will find May 4, 1959, the dog Mansi hunter Kurikov. They took the second leg with them to the ravine.
Extracted items were placed on the deck above the firry to improve insulation seated from the snow. The clothes, folded in several layers, formed 4 places in the corners of the floor, on the basis of which we can not doubt that on the flooring the entire four were at least for a while in full composition. So, in the corners were laid out:
- Chinese wool jumper in beige color;
- trousers brown, severely ripped;
- a brown wool sweater;
- One leg of black cotton pants.
At the same time, the members of the quartet were wearing trousers-trousers and a sweater (or two pieces) of Krivonischenko, who had radioactive dust on themselves. Quite possibly, at the same time there was a redistribution of clothes within the group, due to which we see a certain balance between the members. Shod Zolotaryov and Thibault Brignol had only one pair of woolen socks on their legs (as we know from the results of the autopsy) (if exactly, then Zolotarev has two sock on his left leg, one on his right, and Tybot in his right felt boots - strayed sock, so that on both accounted for a total of three pairs of woolen socks). It seems almost impossible for them to wear shoes with only one pair of socks in a winter hike. Most likely, shod members of the group took off one pair of socks and gave them to their friends (Dubinina wore two pairs of socks, plus one burned, and Kolevatov had three pairs of cotton socks and one - woolen ones, that is, only four). A similar imbalance can be seen in the outer clothing: a warm sweater and a T-shirt under a warm fur jacket, Zolotaryov under a fur vest and a jacket of a jacket, wearing outer clothing, wore a cotton sweater (now he would be called "bodlon" or " turtleneck ") and a pair of T-shirts (one of them with sleeves). Meanwhile, Dubinin was found in May 1959 in two woolen sweaters, a shirt, a cowboy and a knitted shirt. Torso Kolevatov was also very well protected (against the background of Zolotarev and Thibaut), perhaps Alexander in this sense can be considered the best-kept clothing: under his ski jacket was a knitted sweater (one that is "bodlon"), a woolen sweater, a cowboy x / paper and shirt with nachos. But Alexander did not have a hat, mittens and shoes.
When examining the clothing of all four members of the group, you come to the conclusion that they carefully analyzed the resources at their disposal and tried to achieve the most preferable balance in their understanding. In fact, the most mobile (because shod!) Zolotarev and Thibault Brignol at the time of detection of their corpses had a relatively weakly protected torso. But they had shoes and hats, and Nicholas Thibault-Brignol also had a pair of knitted gloves. Expressed in the language of modern gamers, shoes - this is a serious bonus to the survival of the hero; Zolotaryov and Thibault Brignol could be warmed by the movement - squat, run, move through the forest in order to reconnoiter the situation ... Whatever one may say, shoes are a great thing, especially Russian winter (involuntarily recalled Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov with his immortal "keep your feet warm, and head in the cold "). Lyudmila Dubinina and Alexander Kolevatov, on the contrary, were deprived of shoes, but had a relatively well insulated torso (Lyudmila, besides, had a knitted sports cap on her head). It seems that this "complementarity" in clothes, it was not accidental, was the result of purposeful actions of the members of the group to equalize the initially imbalance in clothing. This alignment was to ensure the overall survival of the group members in conditions of a drop in temperature and approaching the night.
In general, it can be confidently asserted that the group was sufficiently warmed to survive the night in full force. The least dressed Lyudmila Dubinina immediately after the descent, even with the cultivation of the campfire under the cedar, has opted for its main problem - the lack of shoes - by cutting a wool blouse in half and shredding the resulting "wrinkles" of the ankle (recall, underneath it, they wore a pair of woolen and cotton socks). That this manipulation was carried out by her even then, we are very eloquently convinced by the fire recorded by the Rebirth on one of these self-made footcloths. In principle, Lyudmila was most likely (in comparison with other members of the group) to get frostbite of the limbs, but in any case, they represented a "threat with delayed consequences" and could not prevent her from surviving until the morning. Do not lose sight of the fact that the group was in the "aerodynamic pocket" below the surface of the earth, and moreover in the forest zone, which means that in any direction and speed of the wind, he did not disturb the four on the floor.
Concluding the conversation about the distribution of clothes among the members of the "four on the floor", one can not help but dwell on a circumstance that is quite embarrassing for some who are interested in the history of the death of the group, and especially those who have just started to understand the circumstances of the case. It's about the notorious "stripping Ludmila Dubinina" by Semyon Zolotarev. Myth - and this is just a myth - is based on a cleverly formulated passage from the decree on the termination of a criminal case dated May 28, 1959, verbatim: "The dead Thibo-Brignol and Zolotarev are found well dressed, worse dressed Dubinina - her jacket made of faux fur and the cap turned out to be on Zolotarev, the unbuttoned leg of Dubinina wrapped in Krivonischenko's wool trousers. "It was from this fragment that a few years ago the version of Zolotaryov the criminal, mercilessly taking the last clothes from the weakest member of the group.
What do you want to say on the merits? A cleverly drawn up decree on the termination of the case has already been described in this essay quite fully and, moreover, deservedly-negatively. Investigator Ivanov managed to create a document that enters into many direct and explicit contradictions with the circumstances fixed by the investigation (which is only the phrase "amateur hike" invented by the prosecutor-criminalist!). The investigator screwed up the description of the clothes of the deceased, it is unclear, however, what prevented him from opening forensic medical examinations and clarifying which of the deceased exactly how he was dressed. What is only the end of the sentence "Dubinina's razed leg is wrapped in Krivonischenko's woolen trousers." From it you can conclude that the razut was only one leg Dubinina (and this is not true!) And that for her warmth the deceased used Krivonischenko's pants, which is also incorrect. The revived person, personally undressing the corpses, quite definitely described the "gray woolen burned flap from the sweatshirt with the sleeve", the investigator had only to open this document and read it (which apparently did not bother him). So Ivanov's reasoning about who was dressed in is inexpensive.
Therefore, the significant mention of the investigator-criminalist "jacket of artificial fur," supposedly owned by Dubinina, but for some reason found on Zolotarev, hardly worth attaching too much importance. This is just another prosecutor's blunder in a row of half a dozen others, much more significant. In fact, Simon Zolotarev always stayed in his own fur jacket, and Lyudmila Dubinina's jacket of the same material was removed by her on the slope during the forced stripping of the group. The criminals brought her inside the tent, where in the end of February the search engines found a jacket, and the prosecutor Tempalov brought her to the list of things found in the tent, of course, without indicating the belonging.
And the assumption of Lyudmila's belonging to a knitted woolen cap found on Zolotaryov's head, we will not contest, because her voluntary transfer could well have taken place. We convincingly showed that the four remaining in the ravine tried to balance the clothes and in this context the transfer of the cap could not have been meaningless (if Lyudmila had two of them on her head initially). In any case, the version of the "evil Zolotarev, who intimidates and strips the poor girl in the cold", does not deserve the slightest confidence: if something like this happened, the other members of the group would have lost their clothes (Kolyatov could take sweaters and socks , and in Thibault-Brignol - gloves, at least). It is clear that after such an infamy Zolotaryov, the group would have broken up and we certainly would not have seen seating on the floor for four people.
After that, a somewhat protracted but inevitable retreat, we return to the description of the chain of events, as they are seen from the point of view of the version of the "controlled delivery".
While all four were sitting on the deck, among tourists, of course, there was an exchange of views. Now, when it became clear that the attackers had descended from the mountain and clearly have the goal of destroying the entire group, the fate of everyone depended on answering the question "what to do?" We can not doubt that the four tourists made an attempt to write notes with a brief account of what happened - for this the group had both the opportunity and the time. In addition to the pencils and notebook Kolevatova, which, according to the people who knew him, he never parted, two pencils were available from Dubinina. In addition, Dubinina had 35 rubles, which could be used as a paper for notes. However, as we know from the results of the investigation, no notes were found on the bodies of the deceased, nor was Alexander Kolevatov's notebook found. It seems to the author that this circumstance is a very serious argument in favor of the fact that the bodies of the deceased tourists were subjected to a thorough posthumous search.
This is how the disposition looked like at 18:30 (approximately). What happened then?
At some point Lyudmila Dubinina and Nikolay Thibault-Brignol decided to re-sally to the cedar, that is, another split of the group occurred. It is impossible to say exactly what the division of the "four" was explained, whether it was a temporary step or the tourists decided to disperse until the morning and act further as autonomous pairs in the hope that this would double the chances of survival. Whatever the true reason for this action, two went to the cedar. And one of the two was Lyudmila Dubinina. The reason for the sortie was the intention to take advantage of the last clothes left on the bodies of Krivonischenko and Doroshenko.
The departed had Krivonischenko's "fin", which was found and carried away at the first visit to the cedar (when George's body was moved and placed next to Doroshenko's corpse). Honestly, it would be more logical to see this knife in the hands of Zolotaryov - and not because of his military past (in itself, it did not guarantee the ability to own cold steel), but because, as a graduate of a sports institution, he was an instructor in fencing and hand-to-hand combat . Now very few people know that during the military and post-war years in the civilian sports colleges of the USSR special disciplines were taught on the so-called. Applied fencing and bayonet fighting, as well as hand-to-hand combat. Graduates of higher educational institutions, in turn, were to teach them Soviet youth in schools and FZU in the framework of training future warriors for service in the Armed Forces. The first textbook on the special course "Fencing and hand-to-hand fighting" for students of civilian sports institutes was published in 1940 (author Bulochko). Therefore, we can not doubt that Semen Zolotarev could quite professionally handle a Finnish knife (in any case, much better than Thibault Brignoles).
The knife, however, most likely was in the hands of Thibaut. Why this happened, we can not explain ... it just happened. It should be remembered that communication relations within the group (voluntary and forced subordination, sympathy based on sexual preference, demonstrative challenge and demonstrative submission, etc.) for us now remain nuances not fully understood. There are some issues of principle, which now - in 2010 - we are unlikely to get answers.
Lyudmila and Nikolay came unhindered to the cedar and then faced an obstacle, the complexity of which was clearly underestimated. They realized that their strength was not enough to quickly undress the dead - the body had to be moved, turned over, unbuttoned by the buttons of the shirts (both on the chest and on the sleeves). And all these manipulations had to be done in the dark and preferably as soon as possible. Before that, the "woodpeckers" had already transferred Krivonischenko's body and undressed the dead, but then there were two men under the cedar. Now the slow and thin Thibaut trying to turn the corpse of Doroshenko left with only a hand waving: where there! In addition, it is possible that there was another factor that the group members did not expect to encounter. It is a matter of rigor mortis, which, as is known, is expressed very dramatically on the corpses of large, athletic people (especially if they had to go through a period of intense muscular work, accompanied by increased production of lactic acid before death) - this is the case of Doroshenko). It is believed that rigor mortis begins to appear after 2 hours from the time of death, but this is averaged time, so it can not be ruled out that, just an hour after death, the humeral girdle and hands of Yuri Doroshenko, if not completely stiffened, lost mobility in the joints. That is why it became practically impossible to remove his shirt-cowboy from him in the usual way.
But the output nevertheless was found, thanks to ingenuity and the presence of a knife - using the "Finn" Nicholas or Lyudmila cut off the sleeves of the shirt-cowboy Doroshenko. And, the cut-off approached his work not immediately, why on both hands of Yuri there are quite a few small cuts (about a dozen). The fact that the sweaters of the deceased were removed without cutting with a knife, and the sleeves of Doroshenko's cowboy had to be cut off, suggests that these details of clothing were obtained by different people and, moreover, with a rather large break in time.
The extracted sleeves of a warm shirt were a valuable trophy - they could be used as mittens (tied at one end). And in this sense, Krivonischenko's shirt, or rather, her sleeves, was also of interest to the living. However, they did not have time to cut off those who appeared under the cedar, and in this they could only be prevented by one circumstance: the appearance of murderers in the immediate vicinity. The latter, after making an inconclusive race in the surrounding area and not finding the missing members of the group, most likely returned to the cedar. And they collided with Lyudmila Dubinina and Nikolai Thibaut.
Then there was what should have happened - armed with a knife Thibaut tried to stop the enemy, counting the cost of his life to give Lyudmila time to break away from the inevitable pursuit. Perhaps he shouted to her "run!" Or something like that.
But she could not escape - Tibo was disarmed instantly, literally with a bunch of tricks. His right arm was taken to a rigid painful way, turning out at the elbow joint, it was during his execution that the bruise appeared on the lower third of the shoulder (a bruise measuring 10 cm by 12 cm slightly above the elbow), the origin of which in this essay was already written . Urged by a sharp pain in his outstretched hand, Nicholas found himself forced to lie down on the ground, after which he was immediately finished with a knee blow to the right temple. Whoever did it - whether he was holding a painful reception, or his partner - we do not know; From the point of view of wrestling technique, such a blow could be inflicted by any of the opponents of Nicholas. Thibaut lived after this for some time, perhaps from a dozen minutes - this time was determined by the rate of spread of the hemorrhage inside the skull, but the rest of his life Nikolai was unconscious and completely immobilized.
The killers rushed after Lyudmila Dubinina. She fled in the direction of the decking in the stream and she could not escape, apparently, the handicap available at her disposal was very small. She was caught at about 10-15 meters from the creek, about where she found the half of her blouse that had fallen off her feet. This half, like the red light of a traffic light, immediately attracts attention and signals a lot. If Lyudmila Dubinina freely had herself, she would certainly have re-wounded her leg with this rag, for she saved her from frostbite (the most important task, how to escape the cold, was not at that time at Lyudmila - in that case, of course, if we consider the cause of death of the group is the non-criminal factor). But after "homemade dress" fell from her leg, Lyudmila did not tie her back - obviously, because it was impossible to do it. Lyudmila either fled to save her life, or she fought desperately, or was dead (and a piece of the half-cut blouse fell off already while transporting the corpse). In any case, the half of the blouse, dropped on the way to the ravine with a stream, testifies to the extreme unhappiness of its owner and we are unlikely to make a mistake if we assume that this loss is connected with the last moments of Luda's life or her death. And so that it does not happen to Dubinina - it happened outside the deck and outside the ravine.
Lyudmila received the most terrible wounds from all the members of the deceased group. Attempts to explain the absence of the eyes, tongue and mouth diaphragm by the action of the water flow in the stream, supposedly "washed" these organs, can not be considered satisfactory. The effect of water on the body is well known and described in detail many decades ago - water exfoliates the epidermis, destroys the lungs (by the way, according to the degree of safety of the lungs, the forensic expert Revived and determined the duration of the last four dead in the water for 15 days), but does not destroy the eyes and language. And even more so the water is not capable of "washing" two dense, smooth, symmetrically arranged and complex muscles mylohyoideus, forming the so-called. diaphragm of the mouth. If water really would be capable of destroying so destructively the human flesh, then first of all it would be manifested in the "washing out" of the auricles - they are the worst attached to the body. However, all four "dyatlovtsev" found in the stream, ears, as we know, remained in their places. And there does not exist in nature any "washing away" of the water flow of human organs or parts of the body - forensic medicine such a phenomenon is unknown. The very absurd euphemism "washing out the language" was invented by the multi-wise "researchers" of the tragedy of the group Dyatlov in attempts to invent a non-criminal explanation for the monstrous bodily injuries of Lyudmila Dubinina. For, I repeat, there is no concept of "flushing out the language" in either domestic or foreign forensic medicine.
Strictly speaking, the absence of eyes and tongue in Dubinin's and Zolotarev's eyes is a grave cross not only in the "avalanche" theory of Mr. Buyanov, but all other non-criminal versions. Or, if you like, aspen a stake in the heart; metaphor, can, and rigid, but exact. That is why the authors of all these "avalanche", "firnovo-dosochnyh", "herd-elk" and other "mammoth" versions carefully avoided mentioning and discussion of these injuries. About the transition from broken edges down the slope, the authors of these myths are still trying to clarify something, to the extent of their own tongue-tied and uneducated language, of course, but that's about missing eyes and language - a mole ... "the stream of water in the stream washed" ... these are the streams on which Ural - eyes and muscles are washed away.
Why Lyudmila Dubinina's eyeballs were injured (which led to their loss), it is not difficult to explain in the framework of the criminal version. As it was written above, finger pressure on the eyes is a vivid example of functional torture, which, in contrast to torture, is sexually-sadistic, designed to ensure the solution of the task with the greatest efficiency, ie, in the shortest possible time and with minimal effort of the torturer. It will not be a mistake to say that from the point of view of its practical implementation, pressure on the eyes is the simplest version of professionally conducted torture. It is possible that foreign intelligence officers were already on the verge of a nervous breakdown by the time of the massacre of Thibault Brignol and Dubinina. They could consider that the plan for "freezing the group" failed, the tourists fled and the goal set is not reached. They could well have fallen into frustration - a state of acute internal conflict, when a person does not see an acceptable way out and, speaking out perchance, begins to "freak out". In such a confused and aggressive state, a person is not just angry, but is experiencing blinding anger, about which they say that he is depriving the mind. In a state of frustration, a person's ability to act rationally and control his own emotions is sharply reduced. So you can understand why their actions at this time have become suboptimal in terms of fulfilling their own plan.
What exactly prompted them to torture Lyudmila, of course, we can not say for sure, but the assumption that through her torment the murderers were planning to solve some of their tasks seems quite reasonable. For example, they could demand that all those hiding in the forest come out and surrender without resistance. And if Kolevatov and Zolotaryov fulfilled this demand, the criminals could continue torturing Lyudmila, seeking answers from them to their questions. In other words, the young girl was the weakest link in the surviving part of the group and the scouts pressed on this link, trying to use the fact of her captivity as much as possible. The torture of Lyudmila, which caused her great suffering, could stretch out for long minutes - the duration was directly related to the effectiveness. It is clear that the victim screamed, prayed the tormentors to stop, said something to them, maybe even bitten one of them, in any case, either the speech or some actions of Lyudmila provoked the unexpectedly angry reaction of the person who tortured her, who tore her fingers, or cut out his tongue with the knife of the adjoining hyoid muscles. There is no rational explanation for this action, most likely, it happened under the influence of a sudden sharp stimulus - anger, pain, vexation. Most likely, of course, pain ...
The forensic report does not in any way describe the damage to Ludmila's mouth, although the expert had to understand what kind of impact led to the removal of the language. Most likely, the Vozrozdennyi saw something that could not be categorically included in the official document, that is, the expert himself understood that trusting what he saw was destroying the entire official picture of the investigation, which on May 9, 1959, was already safely and uncontrollably tending to a cessation . But in the protocol of the Renaissance there is still an indirect indication of the forcible removal of the tongue and the diaphragm of the mouth, although it does not strike the eye with a superficial reading of the document. The expert left the following records in his signed protocol: "When probing the neck, the unusual mobility of the horns of the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage is determined. (...) The horns of the hyoid bone of unusual mobility - XXXXXXX (hereinafter the clipped word of 7 letters, in the sense of the sentence, it was the word" BROKEN " "), Soft tissue adjacent to the hyoid bone of a dirty gray color. Diaphragm of mouth and tongue absent. The upper edge of the hyoid bone is exposed. "The horn of the hyoid bone, which roughly approximates the shape of the letter W, easily breaks when it strikes the neck sideways in a slightly upward direction. Even without damaging the vertebrae, this stroke is considered fatal (or potentially fatal) because it provokes rapid and severe edema, narrowing the lumen of the respiratory throat and leading to death from suffocation within 10-30 minutes. But to the hyoid bone are attached two muscles of mylohyoideus, forming the diaphragm of the mouth. And the same damage to the W-shaped bone can be caused not by impact from the side and from the bottom up, but by a jerk of the tongue upwards, in which the muscles of the diaphragm transfer the force to the thin horns. Here, the analogy with the usual children's slingshot, well known to all boys, is appropriate: the muscles of the diaphragm can be likened to a stretchable rubber band, and the hyoid bone to the very Y-shaped rod, to which this elastic band is attached. But this analogy is lame in that, unlike a real slingshot, in our case the muscle is stronger than a thin, fragile bone, which in addition has a complex shape. And if the force effect was able to break the muscle, then it will break the bone the more.
With some degree of probability, it can be asserted that Ludmila Dubinina's tongue was torn from her mouth, which resulted in the breaking of the horns of the hyoid bone. And the forensic expert saw this perfectly and understood the nature of what he saw, but he did not want to entrust his discovery to the paper. The expert noted what he saw in a few stingy and indistinct phrases - and that was all. He was able, as he could, to protect himself from possible future prosecution under Article 120 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR in the 1926 edition (with numerous additions), at which time a forensic expert could be prosecuted. The above-mentioned article punished for official forgery, which in 1959 was interpreted by Soviet legislation as "deliberately making false information, falsification, erasure, or marking by an official for self-serving purposes into official documents, as well as compiling and delivering knowingly false documents (...) ". This article presupposed a direct conceit of the accused in concealment or distortion of information, so the forensic medical expert acted wisely, deciding not to allow for concealment or distortion of significant injuries and injuries discovered by him during the opening. After all, if the intention is not proved, then the accusation will be completely different ("negligence"), regardless of whether the exhumation of the corpses will take place after some time or not. And there is such a strong suspicion that honestly fixing the terrible damage to the body of Lyudmila Dubinina, our precious expert did not think at all about the triumph of justice, but how to save himself from the prison bunks. The expert described what he saw on the anatomical table, without proper conclusions and without giving proper assessment to what he saw; in fact, he abandoned his function as an expert, assigning himself the duties of a draftor, i.e., a person performing autopsies without analyzing and evaluating the result. Why did it happen so? The answer does not contain any intrigue and is extremely prosaic: Comrade expert, most likely guided by the Latin wisdom sapienti sat (clever enough and words).
However, let us digress from the examinations of the expert, there is enough about them in the essay.
Ultimately, the torture of Lyudmila Dubinina ended in her quick murder by inflicting a finishing blow to her knee in the chest. The blow was applied to the left side of the chest, where the so-called. direct fracture of 6 ribs (fracture in the area of direct application of force), on the right as a result of so-called. an indirect fracture were found, at least in two places, four more ribs were broken. Direct fractures of the ribs are often accompanied by chipped and wrinkled zigzag edges, so it will not be an exaggeration to say that Ludmila's chest turned into a real bone gruel in a split second. The deflection of the chest at the time of the impact was so great (10 cm or even more) that the heart was squeezed and moved from its place. Even if you do not take into account the subsequent hemorrhage into the heart muscle, such a trauma would inevitably lead to a malfunction of the heart and the development of collapse. After this blow Lyudmila in itself has not come and even if she was still alive, then only a few minutes. The expert suggested that after the trauma Lyudmila could live 10-20 minutes, but there is such a strong suspicion that this interval he measured with a very large margin.
Here we will repeat once again what has already been noted: the nature of the damages of Lyudmila Dubinia made it absolutely impossible in her circumstances to transport her to the Lozva Valley. In the area of 2-5 pairs of human ribs, the muscles responsible for the movements of the hands (if more precisely, for their lowering, i.e., reduction to the torso) are attached to the chest. When you try to divorce your hands, these muscles stretch and transfer the load to the ribs; It is clear that if the ribs are broken, then such a load will cause movement of the junctions and an increase in the gap between them. The slightest change in the load, or the usual shaking of the body when walking, will provoke damage by the cuttings of adjacent tissues and inevitably lead to a puncture of the pleural cavity (unless this happens right at the time of fracture of the ribs). There will begin to flow blood, will develop so-called. hemothorax (filling the pleural cavity with blood and the resulting compression of the lungs). In the case of Lyudmila, the hemothorax of both lungs was simply inevitable. This is a deadly complication requiring puncture of the pleural cavity (piercing the pectoral muscles with a syringe needle and removing blood), and in the case of Lyudmila, a puncture would have to be done repeatedly.
Precisely because of the threat of hemothorax or pneumothorax (getting into the pleural cavity of air in case of an open fracture of the ribs) it is strictly forbidden to raise hands in the direction of persons having fractures of two or more ribs, without preliminary fixation of the chest with a pressure bandage. In the case of Lyudmila Dubinina, her transportation was possible only in the position of lying with her hands folded on her stomach. According to Bujanov's version, she was led down the slope, carefully supporting her hands, without any fixation of the chest. This "careful support" would kill the girl within literally 3-5 minutes due to the above-described reason.
The specific questions or demands of foreign intelligence officers, addressed to Lyudmila Dubinina, were just a matter of tactics and in no way abolished the strategic aim of their actions - the killing of all members of the group. Whether there was a sort of chase or Semen Zolotaryov and Alexander Kolevatov surrendered themselves, wanting to rid Lyudmila Dubinin of new suffering, it's impossible to say exactly. It is clear only that they died somewhere near a ravine with a stream; it is quite possible that Kolevatov, who did not have shoes, did not even try to hide, realizing that he would not be able to go far away in a snow-covered forest without proper thermal insulation of his feet. He was killed with a minimum of violence - stunned by the impact of the hilt of the gun, which was inflicted on the right side behind the ear, and dropped unconsciously into the ravine. Apparently, the general state of Alexander at the time of the massacre was such that the killers had no doubt about his subsequent death. In Kolevatov, the forensic expert described the deformation of the neck in the thyroid cartilage, from which it can be concluded that there was damage to the cartilage itself (as in Lyudmila Dubinina, incidentally, in which we have to admit once again the surprising monotony of injuries to the dead). But whether it is a question of a lifelong trauma or a posthumous one from the single phrase of the Rebirth associated with this defect, it is impossible. Therefore, to say that Kolevatov has also been hit on an Adam's apple, we will not, although such a blow (potentially fatal) can not be ruled out either.
Why did not Kolevatov be tortured, unlike Dubinina? I think, because either Zolotarev was caught at that moment, or he was with him. That is, by the time of the massacre of Alexander the killers felt calm enough and considered their main task to be fulfilled.
Zolotarev was treated differently. The missing eyes are a consequence of not a short-term reprisal, but of trauma as a result of torture. If the assumption that it was his attempt to photograph strangers that provoked their attack was true, then these people undoubtedly had questions to him. First of all, they should have been interested in the film from the camera, which Zolotarev carefully preserved despite all the vicissitudes of the last hours of life. Even if Zolotarev, foreseeing the most undesirable outcome, beforehand took out the coil with a film from the camera and hid somewhere in the forest, hoping that the search group would find a "bookmark" sooner or later, then with intensive interrogation he had to point this place (the man's ability to resist sophisticated torture should not be overestimated). Semyon repeated Lyudmila's fate: after the brutal tortures, which deprived both eyes, he was killed in the same way as Dubinin. A knee blow deformed Zolotarev's thorax to such an extent that it lost its shape, pressing below the level of the abdomen (this is clearly seen in the photograph taken in the morgue before the autopsy).
Photos of the body of Zolotarev's seeds, made during anatomy. In the photo, the deflection of the Semen's chest is clearly visible, due to a fracture along the median-sternal line of the 5 ribs on the right side. The breast is awfully deformed, it just lost shape. And they try to convince us that a person mutilated in this way is capable of moving independently for a considerable distance! We only need to "mobilize" and include "hidden opportunities", only! .. The detachment of the epidermis with the removal of hair and nail plates begins approximately on the 6th day of the stay of the corpse in the water - this is a common phenomenon well known to forensic medicine. From him to the disappearance of soft tissues and organs a huge distance! Examination of the skull bones was noted by the forensic expert in the area of the superciliary arches, but there are almost no soft tissues there! We see that the ears, hair and the bare skull are not kept. Other things could not happen with bodies that stayed in the water for no more than 15 days, an objective testimony to which is the safety of the dead from the lungs.
Alas, there were no "supermen" among tourists! There were the most ordinary guys and girls. Thibo-Brignol, Zolotaryov, Dubinin - each of them got his terrible injuries in the last moments of his life. The destruction of the group ended by 19 o'clock, sooner rather earlier, than later.
Of course, the assassins understood that they did not withstand the original plan completely and inflicted too much "talking" wounds on the last four dead. Realizing that the group of tourists that disappeared in full force will be searched and are likely to be found pretty soon, they accepted the only logical decision in this situation - to disguise the bodies of the last four, in order to maximally delay the moment of their discovery (and clarify the picture of what happened) . Criminals proceeded from the fact that the later the hidden bodies are found, the more significant posthumous destruction they will undergo (up to the complete destruction of the remains). This is an absolutely rational approach, which is found by all organized criminals taking measures to hide the bodies of killed people and destroy evidence. Dropping the bodies of Lyudmila Dubinina, Alexander Kolevatov, Semen Zolotaryov and Nikolai Thibault Brignol into the ravine, the killers did not stage anything, they just tried to gain time.
Finally, it remains to say a few words about the possible actions (and seemingly inaction) of the task initiator - the State Security Committee. In principle, the operation of a "controlled delivery" of a radioactive cargo designed to misinform a potential adversary could only be carried out jointly by the First and Second Main Directorates of the KGB (ie, foreign intelligence and counterintelligence). This was to be a serious operation, requiring great organizational and preparatory work, attracting significant material and human resources. To oversee such a large-scale disinformation event should be at the highest level - the Deputy Chairman of the KGB and, possibly, even the Chairman himself. The leadership came from Moscow and the KGB territorial offices in the Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions had no idea about the details of the operation being conducted. In Sverdlovsk there was one liaison officer from Moscow (on force two), who really knew the true insight of Igor Dyatlov's group. And that's it!
When it became clear that the group did not return from the campaign at the appointed time, Moscow was concerned with the main question from the point of view of state security: "was the transfer of the radioactive cargo to its destination and, if not, what is its fate?" The Committee did not directly conduct a search operation, it was not supposed to organize, although it was possible that they had given secret help-phone calls were made in the necessary offices and some fat ass got a good kick for acceleration.
At the same time, the subdivision of the counter-intelligence cover of the production complex in Chelyabinsk-40 with the support of the territorial offices carried out an operative check of information about the disappearance of two secret bearers, Krivonischenko and Slobodin, who were registered as missing tourists, and after confirming such information, engaged in their search ("search "In this context means not hiking in the snow with avalanche probes, but the detection of these persons in the event of their exit from the forest and it should have been conducted asnymi methods). This work was conducted outside of any connection with the Moscow curators of the "controlled delivery" operation, it was aimed at revealing the malicious intent in the actions of secrets carriers, if any, and to minimize the damage from possible betrayal.
When an empty tent was found on the slope of Holat-Sahyl and soon the first corpses were found, the Committee organized an exit to the area of the tragedy of Moscow specialists in tourism. In the interests of the initiators of the operation, it was to obtain the most objective information, and not be content with what they reported, along the way, from Sverdlovsk. Of course, everything was arranged in such a way that the "leading authority" did not appear anywhere, it is quite possible that even Bardeen, Shuleshko and Baskin themselves did not know who the proposal was coming from to get acquainted with the organization of search operations.
For a while, the picture of what happened in the pass area remained unclear, and most importantly, the fate of things with isotope dust was incomprehensible. In the tent they were absent, and the corpses of Krivonischenko and Zolotaryov (we recall that Doroshenko's corpse was considered to be Zolotarev's property for several days) were found undressed. It became clear only that if Krivonischenko put on things intended for transfer, then the tragic events unfolded either on the day of "rendezvous", or after a meeting with foreign intelligence officers. However, there was a death of the tour group in a causal relationship with this meeting, no one could say. Therefore, in early March, the younger brother of Kikoin, a nuclear physicist, was called up to help in the discovery of things, but his participation in the search operation did not help to clarify their fate.
When, on May 4, 1959, the corpses of the last four members of the group were found in the stream and buried in the snow thicket, the students who were part of the search party were immediately removed from the excavation area. It is unlikely that such forethought was the initiative of Colonel Ortyukov, most likely he was fulfilling the "recommendation" of the KGB, which was aimed at minimizing the dissemination of information about the real situation in the search area (we should not forget that students exchanged information on this subject with a wide range of people on their return to Sverdlovsk interested persons, including those from the non-cultural environment). By this time, the initiators of the "controlled delivery" operation may have already come to the conclusion that the combination they had conceived was wrong and suspected the worst - the forcible killing of the members of the group. Therefore, early isolation of students from their point of view made sense and was fully justified.
The subsequent autopsy confirmed the most dismal fears of the Committee's curators. The investigation was recommended to take the path of hiding the information that had become known and distorting the picture of what had happened. The forensic experts Hans and the Vozrozdenyi, who worked with the bodies of the murdered, most likely understood perfectly what was required of them, although they also mistook the definition of the one from whom the demand for distorting the conclusions comes (they should have believed that the regional prosecutor's office "zamylivaet" meanwhile, the team was from a much higher level). Hence the strange ambiguity, incompleteness and direct correction of the texts of the latest forensic experts - Revived on the one hand, fulfilled the requirements of the investigator Ivanov, and on the other - clearly feared that after a while he would be "pulled" to account for what he had done.
Meanwhile, no one thought of doing this, every link in the investigative mechanism performed its job perfectly. After the opening of the last bodies, the curators of the KGB operation, of course, reconstructed the picture of the events on the slope of the Holat-Sahyl without any problems. The last thing remained was to establish the fate of things with isotopic dust. Radiological expertise put everything in its place, it became clear that the "controlled delivery" did not take place, the operational combination of the State Security Committee ended in complete failure and death of both involved and uninvolved people. From the higher Moscow leadership, a completely illogical, but absolutely justified, team closed the investigation. Next, the KGB worked, trying to find the killers, using their methods and capabilities. Most likely, to no avail.