Death, following the trail ...

The death of all group members

The group, having penetrated into the forest for several tens of meters, stopped to take a breath and begin to execute the plan, which, most likely, had already been worked out by that time. However, everything immediately went "wrong", it was barely found out that Slobodin was lost somewhere in the dark. Most likely, none of the members of the group even realized that Rustem could die and the attempt to save him is meaningless. Igor Dyatlov, apparently, decided to go in search of Rustem Slobodin, because being a senior group, he was conscious of a special personal responsibility for the fate of each participant in the campaign. Igor separated himself from the others before the fire under the cedar was lit - this is definitely indicated by the fact that his clothes (and, above all, socks) do not have those numerous burns that one can see with his comrades. Another noteworthy fact is that at the end of February 1959, Djatlov's corpse was found in a vest that Yuri Yudin handed over to Yuri Doroshenko at parting with the group in the 2nd Northern Settlement. Apparently, during the tragic events, Doroshenko took off his vest and handed it to Dyatlov, who was leaving for the mountain, for warming. Doroshenko himself, apparently, believed that he would be able to get warm by the fire and without a vest, but Igor on the slope this thing will be able to help. A small, seemingly episode, but how much he talks about these people and companionship within the group!
   By the way, exactly at that time, according to the author, another transfer of clothes took place - Nikolai Thibault-Brignol took off his plaid shirt and gave it to Yura Doroshenko, obviously, as compensation for the vest. It is in this plaid shirt that Doroshenko's corpse will be found by search engines at the end of February. Proponents of non-criminal versions earnestly prove that the wounded Tybo and Zolotarev were "warmed" by their comrades, pulling sweaters and jackets on unfeeling bodies, but for some reason modestly ignored the fact that the "insensitive" Nikolai Thibaut was able to worry about the poorly dressed friend and donated that warm flannel shirt. The moment with the transfer of clothes from Doroshenko Dyatlova and from Thibaut - Doroshenko, which took place clearly before the campfire under the cedar, is very important: it shows that the redistribution of things between the members of the group began even before the first death (Slobodin was considered alive). This refinement allows us to better understand the logic of those members of the group who will have to cut clothes on the corpses of their comrades after a while (which we will say especially in our place).

The decision to go back to the slope of Holat-Sahyl was inexcusably frivolous - Igor Dyatlov was insulated worse than the rest. He did not have any headgear, and only one toe was worn on his feet. By the time of the end of the descent from the mountain, Igor, no doubt, had already cooled down, he could not go uphill without solving the problems with the thermal insulation of his legs. Perhaps, a good solution could be a decision to sacrifice a "sweater" or a woolen vest mentioned above (for example, Lyudmila Dubinina and her blouse). But time for these manipulations Igor Dyatlov did not leave to himself - he drove himself uphill in search of the straggler Rustem.
   To build a bonfire on a high place as a reference point for the missing members of the group was a logical and almost ideal solution. With only one exception - the bonfire served as proof that the people expelled from the tent are alive. Because of this, he could attract the attackers. In occasion of, whether to plant a fire or not among "дятловцев" most likely there was a split. At least one person, Semyon Zolotarev, had to understand that the true purpose of the expulsion from the tent and undressing the members of the group was not robbery at all, but a total murder disguised as an accident. Therefore, breeding a fire in his understanding should have been a suicidal decision. It can be fairly confidently asserted that Semyon was an opponent of the fire at the cedar and did not participate in the harvesting of firewood, or participated for a short time. Apparently, he proposed a plan to ensure the survival of the group without breeding a fire, but other participants in the campaign did not listen to him, at least initially. Zolotarev, most likely, left the cedar before the time of the fire - on his clothes there are no traces of sparks, which can be seen on things, for example, Kolmogorov, Kolevatov or Dubinin. In addition, Semen's hands are deprived of those skin lesions, which are present on the hands of Krivonischenko and Doroshenko, who actively harvested firewood and lapnik.
   By the way, this division of Zolotarev from the group should not at all be regarded as a quarrel or conflict - it is quite possible that his intention to arrange a "cache" or "lezhku" somewhere nearby to hide the remaining members of the group was met with understanding. In other words, the Zolotarev branch was collision-free, according to a general agreement. The fact that Dubinin, Tibo and Kolevatov have joined him after a while, clearly shows this.
   So, if we believe that the beginning of the tent on the slope of Holat-Sahyl refers to 15:30, and the beginning of the attack on the group - by 4:00 pm, then by 5:00 pm the remaining members of the group were engaged in trying to breed the fire under the cedar . In view of the lack of shoes, everyone, except Thibault Brignol, had to cut them with knives or break hands with lapnik and throw them under their feet to improve the thermal insulation of their feet. Fir trees and no one thought to heat the fire - for this area was dry outside. In order not to go to the boughs in the woods and not to freeze your feet in the snow, Doroshenko and Krivonischenko started to climb on the cedar and break (or again, cut, cut off) its green branches. Work under the cedar began to boil.
   The bonfire was intentionally bred east of the cedar, that is, so that the trunk of the tree was between the fire and the tent and covered the flame with it. In this case, the cedar did not cover the bonfire from the wind blowing from the north - this circumstance drastically reduced the value of the fire as a possible source of heating. However, the "Dyatlovites" intentionally went to the irrational placement of the fire, hoping to reduce its visibility for observers from the area of ​​the tent.

Immediately I must say that all their tricks were in vain.
   About 17 hours - or, perhaps, a bit later - the fire broke out. Recall that according to investigator Ivanov, the group of Igor Dyatlov at this time only proceeded with setting up a tent on the slope. In fact, by this time already two of its members were either dead, or were on the verge of death (Rustem Slobodin and Igor Dyatlov). Because of the error in determining the time of darkness, the investigator unreasonably shifted the tragic events to the evening and night hours, which, as is known, had a cold fall on February 1, 1959. This manipulation over time perfectly fit into the concept of "death from freezing", but the real events, as shown above, this did not correspond.
   Breeding the fire in no way contributed to a real solution of the problems facing the group. This took a lot of precious time and effort, and the result was insignificant - "dyutlovtsy" realized that in a windy hillock the bonfire is unable to heat the group (the heat is banally blown out). In addition, the non-return of Igor Dyatlov made us think that with him, too, was a disaster. Anxiety and panic over time only increased, they intensified as the strength of the members of the group decreased and they froze. The members of the group were in a state that can very accurately be described in chess terms: time trouble - lack of time - and tsuzvang - the deterioration of the general situation with any choice from all possible. The stress experienced by the members of the group has increased - it is very important to keep in mind for a correct understanding of their actions. After 17 hours, the psychological stress experienced by the members of the group became much higher than an hour earlier, at the beginning of the development of the conflict situation.
   In this situation, further fragmentation of the group was inevitable. Let us recall the various behavioral models chosen in stressful situations, they will almost always be different for different people. Therefore it is not surprising that some time after the separation from the group of Igor Dyatlov, Zina Kolmogorova left after him. Apparently, she felt some kind of special responsibility for his fate, or in other words, experienced a feeling of special involvement. Let's think for a minute, if two young and full forces of the guy got into trouble, then how can one girl help them? Nothing, absolutely, she just does not have enough strength to pull both to the fire. Nevertheless, Zina went after Igor. And it is remarkable that no one else went with her. It would seem, why? The answer is much simpler than it seems at first glance - Zina Kolmogorova's decision was not considered optimal by her comrades, so she did not find any understanding or support among the remaining members of the group.
   Further more. Lyudmila Dubinina, Alexander Kolevatov and Nikolay Thibault-Brignol left the cedar. We do not know what reasons were motivated for their secession - there can be many such. It is possible that on their care, Georgy Krivonischenko insisted, who at some point realized the validity of Zolotaryov's words about the danger of breeding a fire. Himself Krivonischenko decided at all costs to support the fire, which, he believed, was necessary for the return of Igor Dyatlov. There can be no doubt that originally Dubinin and Kolevatov were near the fire - a handkerchief was first found under the cedar, and the ski jacket of the second had a large burn on the left sleeve. Most likely, Thibault-Brignol stayed with them, although there is no full certainty about this (perhaps he separated from the group earlier, along with Zolotarev). But what is important is that at some point after the fire, the band finally split up (or disintegrated - as you please), leaving only two - George Krivonischenko and Yury Doroshenko - under the cedar. Obviously, it was their conscious choice - they decided to support the fire at any cost, believing that the fate of their friends depends on the existence of this landmark - Rustem Slobodin, Igor Dyatlov and Zina Kolmogorova.

Those who left the cedar joined Semyon Zolotarev (which looks quite reasonable), who equipped a real partisan "lezhka" in a snowdrift in a ravine. For a complete analogy with the latter there was only a cloak-tent, which the Soviet partisans and saboteurs stretched over the trench in the snowdrift. The place for his "hiking" Simon chose very sensibly - he did not go into the woods, knowing full well that on the deep, loose snow without skis he would still not come off the enemy on snowshoes, but returned slightly back and turned away from the line "tent- cedar". Hiding in his snow cache, he did not give out his presence, had the opportunity to notice the enemy at his approach to the cedar in the footsteps of the group that had gone down. Zolotarev certainly had a rescue plan, which in principle, with a certain amount of luck, could be realized - this is clearly indicated by his refusal to leave deep into the forest (we do not forget about the storage where there were a couple of spare skis and products - if Semyon managed to hold out until the morning, he had a good chance to find him, to leave the area of ​​the pass and eventually to break away from his pursuers.Do not forget that the skier moves faster than the person in snowshoeing. In general, if the plan of Zolotarev was reduced to this scheme, realistic en, but for its implementation it was required a very small thing - to survive the night!).
   So, to Zolotarev in his snow trench joined by members of the group, left from the cedar. Now in the ravine there were four - Dubinin, Kolevatov, Zolotaryov and Thibault Brignol. Together, the fourth expanded the original shelter and added to the bottom of the fir, which broke down right there, near the ravine. Sam Zolotarev, most likely, these trees there initially did not break, but brought a couple of three with himself from the cedar (recall that the search engines seem to have seen small crumbling branches on the way to the ravine, although the values ​​in March 1959 did not give it). In total, the bottom of the snow pit was laid, forming the notorious "decking", 14 thin fir and 1 birch. On this floor, the entire four were placed.
   This could be approximately the disposition at 17:15, that is, about an hour after the expulsion of Igor Dyatlov's group from the tent.
   What was happening all the time above, in the area of ​​the camp left by tourists?
   Foreign agents first had to hide the traces of the mass stripping of people near the tent and equip the scene of the crime in such a way that the impression of the flight of stripped tourists was created directly from the tent. For this, the criminals attempted to collect in the tent things thrown by the members of the group under the muzzle of their pistols. At the same time, they admitted at least two mistakes, irrefutably testifying to the forcible stripping of the group.

First, in the tent were found things that should not have been together. What is it about? Tourists after the ski crossing were outfitted in "home" clothes and shoes. When they took off their ski boots, they wore felt boots or cloth slippers, and fur vests and sweaters were worn instead of the sledges and "quilted jackets." And it is clear that the process of re-emergence took place at the same time, in view of the apparent tightness of the tent. Therefore, both sets of clothes - "marching" and "home" - could not be removed at the same time, any one should always be worn. For - winter, and in a tent without a working stove, the temperature is slightly higher than "street". But in the tent "dyatlovtsev" was too much clothes and shoes. So in it were found by the search engines all 9 storms "dyutlovtsev", as well as 1 fur and 6 cotton jackets ("quilted") (i.e., the outer clothing of 7 people, which is in perfect agreement with the fact that the outer clothing of Thibault Brignoles and Zolotarev remained on them). Maybe these seven had time to put on "home" clothes? It is quite unlike, for 3 sweaters, 2 fur vests and 1 shirt-cowboy also found themselves in a tent. Even more striking statistics with shoes: 8 pairs of ski boots found in the tent, but there was also a replaceable, "home" shoes of the members of the group - 7 felt boots, 2 pairs of slippers, 8 pairs of knitted leggings and 7 woolen (the latter had sewn heels and insoles and also used as slippers). If we assume that the tragedy of Igor Dyatlov's group is of a non-criminal nature, then the picture of the incident acquires phantasmagoric features - the "frightening factor" catches up with the group at the time of its universal re-dressing and changing clothes. And simultaneous, which contradicts both life experience and common sense, since all normal people in the cold do not do it simultaneously. Even if we assume that the "woodpeckers" were preparing for bed and voluntarily removed the "marching" shoes, then still no "gondola American balloon", no "snowboard" or "avalanche" could not induce tourists to leave the slope and also " home. " They would have gone down the slope - in felt boots, slippers and leggings, but not in one pair of sock, like Igor Dyatlov.
   The second mistake of the people who intimidated the group was that they did not "clean up" the part of the slope adjacent to the tent, because of which there were indirect evidence of undressing tourists. This is a mistake, so to speak, involuntary, stemming from the very nature of the actions of foreign agents - they had to collect things and put them in a tent in low-light conditions and do it as quickly as possible. In addition, they had to fear the return and possible attack of tourists - no one could exclude such a course of events. On the slope there were Igor Dyatlov's "house" items (folded shirt with a slipper inside), clearly testifying that at the time of the beginning of the tragic events, he was going to change clothes and retrieved them from his backpack. Igor had to leave the tent, squeezing these things in his hands - he did not leave them in the tent, so that later not look in the dark among a heap of objects. On the slope he had to throw the shirt with the slippers aside, at a distance of about 10 m or slightly more, and he did it clearly not voluntarily, but obeying the order under the threat of weapons. If his actions were voluntary, he would simply put them next to the tent, in order to find them quickly. This is logical and obvious. In fact, well, who would have acted differently in his place? There is evidence of participants in the search operation indicating that in the snow near the tent there were many small objects (socks, coins, etc.), which even in March 1959 it was impossible to fully assemble. From the same series of "small items" textolite sheath from the "fins" Kolevatov, found only in May, after the complete disappearance of the snow cover on the slope. All this small thing, scattered and scattered near the tent is the best evidence of the chaotic stripping of the group and from it criminals at all desire could not get rid of. Snow, wind, darkness ... large objects can still be collected, but small hands no longer reach - and the eye does not see! - the snow sweeps away everything.

Foreign agents coped with the task facing them as they could - that is, not in the best way. However, as further events showed, in order to confuse the Sverdlovsk regional prosecutor's office they worked quite skillfully.
   Dumping the shoes and clothes taken from tourists in a tent chaotically, foreign agents proceeded (or one of them proceeded) to search the property that was at their disposal. Strongly hanging the ridge of the tent, for the support of which the "dyatlovtsy" did not manage to get a rope-brace, clearly interfered with this, because it prevented free movement. Therefore, one of the scouts, without further ado, decided to prop up the horse with a ski pole. Ski poles of tourists for this, however, were not intended at all - at the height of the ridge 1 m (in the case of placing the tent skates on the ground, as was the case on the slope of Holat-Sahyl), a 1.4 m long stick in the role of the support was obviously too big. The foreign intelligence officer obviously had neither the desire, nor the time nor the energy to deal with the technology of stretching the roof ridge, and therefore he acted extremely pragmatically - took a knife and began to cut the ski stick in the right size.
   No member of the Igor Dyatlov group on such barbarity would have dared for the simple reason that there were no spare ski poles at the disposal of the group. Ski spare - because skiing can be broken! - but a bamboo stick accidentally break is very problematic ... If a stick cut with a knife someone from the tourists, then personally for him it would mean only that the next day he will go on the road with one stick. It was necessary to be a complete idiot to make it so unreasonable to do with your own inventory. The trimmed ski stick is the best evidence that absolutely unknown people were staying (and for a long time!) The tent of Igor Dyatlov's group, and people who had no intention to help the tourists who were in trouble and who clearly intended to leave their presence in secret.
   If the investigators Ivanov and Tempalov were a little more experienced, more attentive and simply smarter, they would not only have photographed this ski stick, measured it and recorded it, but also saved it as a valuable clue explaining almost the whole thing. However, we can talk about this only in the subjunctive mood, for there are no photographs of the ski pole mentioned, there is not even a more or less distinct description of its cuts, we just know from the memories of the search engines that it existed. And more than that - lay inside the tent, thrown over the things of the disappeared tourists.
   However, the scorer did not have to cut the stick - he was either stopped by a partner, or he himself refused this idea, realizing that he was simply wasting time.
   What was the purpose of the search? Of course, any information capable of confirming the connection between people who were expelled from the tent and the KGB was of interest to foreign spies. This could have been given by the relevant documents and weapons, but, as we know, the members of the group had nothing to reveal their connection with the KGB. The murderers were interested in the cameras of the participants of the march - the fact that their cases were opened and then closed back by strangers definitely indicates the broken filter found in the camera of Georgy Krivonischenko. As already mentioned above, for the owner of photographic equipment the broken filter did not have any value and if Georgy broke it on the slope, when he took the last photographs, he would have thrown it there (photographing through broken glass means guaranteed to spoil the frame). This, however, was not done, the filter remained in its place, and Georgy during the last photo shoot did not use it explicitly (yellow or orange filters, sold with the camera "Sharp", were used for shooting in the snow in sunny weather). This interest of strangers to photographic equipment of tourists - and the interest disguised, implicit, without deliberate damage to property and the exposure of films - makes one think that they were interested only in one, quite definite, camera. And it was not a camera like "Sharp" with the lens "Industar-22", which they found already 4 pieces and did not show much interest in them.

The enemy, busy searching the things of tourists, to his surprise found not one, but two cameras, similar to the one he was looking for. Not knowing exactly what he needed, the searcher decided to take both, so that he could solve his task for sure. So the cameras disappeared from the tent, which, we believe, belonged to Thibault Brignol and Kolmogorova. Apparently, one of their owners began to openly take photos of strangers during the first contact, involuntarily awakening their suspicions and provoking the ensuing attack.
   Special camera Semen Zolotarev foreign agents did not find and could not find - he was always hanging on the owner's neck and was carried away to the valley of Lozvy. It is possible that Semen Zolotarev did his work quite successfully and managed to photograph the people who came to the meeting, remaining unnoticed. That is why he so cherished his second camera - his film confirmed the successful completion of the task.
   So, while one of the adversaries crawled in the darkness in the tent, flashing his flashlight, his partner settled down at the entrance and made several incisions of the ramp, which turned down the slope. This was done to ensure control over the slope and exclude the possibility of a hidden return of tourists to the tent for things or attacks on the offenders. If there were three foreign scouts, another one was located at the opposite end of the tent, where he also cut the ramp in several places (however, for this the third person was not needed, these cuts could be done by the scout who searched the items after finished his occupation and also began to observe the slope).
   All this fuss with the things of tourists - gathering in the snow, entering the tent and the subsequent search - hardly required a lot of time. Everything took about half an hour, after which the scouts realized that they were not interested in the camera in the tent - it was carried away by tourists who had gone down. We can only guess how long foreign agents expected to remain in the tent - this is by and large unimportant now, since the denouement of events unwittingly accelerated the tourists themselves, divining the fire under the cedar.
   Their opponent, watching from the tent behind the valley, could not help but see the glow of the flame. This discovery clearly showed that the Soviet tourists expelled from the tent not only did not freeze on the slope, but on the contrary, having reached the forest boundary, are struggling for their own survival with success. If people without shoes, hats, gloves and outer clothing lasted for one hour in the cold without fire, what could be the assurance that they would not last the whole night with a fire? Obviously, such guarantees did not exist - Soviet tourists were much more tenacious than their enemy originally believed, and this discovery meant that tourists would have to be killed violently, not relying solely on the effects of frost and wind.

About an hour after the expulsion of the "dyatlovists" from the tent-that is, at 17 hours or somewhat later-their adversary moved down the slope towards the campfire. However, foreign agents had to reckon with the fact that the fire in the forest was divorced purely to distract their attention and at the same time, as long as they were moving down, a group of tourists (or part of the group) would return to the tent and take possession of their property. Such a maneuver of the "Dyatlovites" seemed a very logical and reasonable step, almost the only one that gave a real chance to save at least several members of the group. Therefore, the adversary ripped the tent's skate from the ridge to the side wall, applying at least 6 incisions of about 1 m length each (at least 2 of them were made at a distance of 1 m from the exit from the tent. (!) buttons, two of which were unbuttoned.Why did the "woodpeckers" have to cut the sting near the already half-open exit completely incomprehensible, but such "logical" inconsistencies do not confuse such "avalanche", "gondoliers" and "bombers"). So these strange and seemingly completely meaningless cuts appeared; supporters of non-criminal versions consider them the consequence of an attempt to "evacuate the wounded." The fact that these rectilinear sections could not be made on a crumpled, snow-covered canvas, and crushed by the canvas, "avalanche" does not care. And the fact that the fugitives did not have the necessary number of knives, also does not confuse these researchers (it is reliably known that the group leaving on the slope had 2 knives - Krivonischenko's "Finn" and Dyatlov's penknife, perhaps someone had one more or two knives that were not found by the search engines, but in any case, the runaways obviously did not have six knives with them, which means that with one knife several long incisions of the ramp were made, which looks like a senseless waste of time and does not accelerate the evacuation of the seriously wounded. but and the groups stayed in things thrown in the tent and were subsequently discovered there.It is completely unclear how in the state of acute shortage of time with two knives it was possible to tear up the tent so much, and most importantly for what? Because there was only one long slash cut for the evacuation of the wounded! ). Those damages of the tent, which are found on it by examination and recorded by photography, are possible only if it is deliberately cut for a long time. And long incisions in the direction from top to bottom could appear only as a result of purposeful damage to property.
   What to say - a very unpleasant conclusion for supporters of non-criminal versions, but this conclusion is the only unbiased.

We can not know for sure whether the scouts of Slobodin, frozen in the slope, Zina Kolmogorova and Igor Dyatlov, were coming down from the tent. It is possible that they found their bodies later - after having disposed of the remains of the group below, they returned to the top. But the fact that the killers not only saw the corpses of people frozen on the slope, but also searched them, there can be no doubt. Igor Dyatlov found in the face up, which is almost never observed in cases of death from hypothermia (freezing, reflexively trying to reduce the cooling area, takes the "pose of a chill man" on his side or face down). According to some recollections, the "zipper" of Igor's fur jacket was completely unbuttoned, and two outer pockets "with lightning" were also unbuttoned, which looked very strange (although, objectively, it should be noted that Tempalov's crime scene inspection report, February 27, 1959 These details are not fixed). Zinaida Kolmogorova, who was found lying on her right side with an outstretched left leg and a half-bent right, did not have the "pose of a chill man". With no agonistic movements, such a strange position of bodies can not be explained: movements in a state of agony are chaotic, have a small amplitude and effort, and are more like convulsions than limb movement in the usual sense (no targeted actions, like opening pockets or unfastening a "lightning" agony can not be said). He did not have the "pose of a chill man" and Rustem Slobodin, who was lying on his chest, but with his left hand and foot extended toward the side. Meanwhile, according to medical statistics, "the pose of a chilling person" is noted in about 60% of cases of freezing of sober people (in the state of alcohol intoxication, this value decreases to 10%). And, Slobodin clearly died of hypothermia - under him was found the only "bed of the corpse." He must have been in the aforementioned "pose of a chilly", since a person accepts it unconsciously, without considering his own actions. So in fact, no! There are no rational explanations for such strange provisions of bodies of freezing people, if one does not agree with the fact that their bodies were turned around shortly after death (that is, before the appearance of rigor mortis, which, as is known, develops approximately 12 hours after the death) .
   So, we believe that the foreign agents - the killers of Igor Dyatlov's group - started their movement in the Lozva Valley after 17 hours and found themselves there about 17: 15-17: 20. Having a normal winter footwear and snowshoes, they did not experience those difficulties with the movement along the stony snow-covered slope that the "woodpeckers", therefore they moved much faster. They did not notice the "lezhki" in the stream, equipped Zolotarev, and slipped in the tracks of the group directly to the cedar. And there the adversary was waiting for a serious blow - instead of a group of 9 people, the cedar had only two.
   One can only guess what the conversation was with the cedar, but we have strong evidence that at least one of the tourists had violent actions that ended in a fatal outcome. Yuri Doroshenko was forcibly killed as a result of torture, Georgy Krivonischenko, most likely, had the opportunity to watch this violence, while remaining on the tree. There it was until the tissue hypoxia, which developed as a result of deep hypothermia, led to a loss of the ability to control its body, after which Krivonischenko fell from the tree. However, everything in order.

As you know, on the face of Yuri Doroshenko, a forensic expert described a gray foam that came from the mouth and nose of the deceased young man. There is no doubt that foam was found, not traces of vomit, because they are very different and the forensic physician could not confuse them. Foam emanating from the mouth and nose is a formidable symptom of developing pulmonary edema, which can be followed by death in the shortest time, unless special resuscitation measures are performed. The nature of this process can be twofold: edema of the lungs. is caused by the growth of intracapillary hydrostatic blood pressure (so-called hydrostatic edema of the lungs) or it may follow due to an increase in the permeability of the capillary walls in the alveoli (so-called membranogenic pulmonary edema). The latter kind of edema is possible with some syndromes that develop during poisoning with toxic gases (chlorine, phosgene, mercury vapor, etc.), with pancreatitis, kidney failure and some other diseases. But in all these cases, the membranogenic edema is still quite rare, most often it develops when a significant amount of foreign substances, for example, the contents of the stomach or water (during drowning) is thrown into the respiratory tract. By the way, the presence of persistent small-bubbly foam (usually white, less often pink) in the respiratory tract of the corpse as early as 1870 was described by the Russian forensic physician S. Krushevsky as one of the signs of drowning, which subsequently received his name.
   Some severe diseases of the heart and blood vessels, bronchial asthma, pneumothorax may lead to hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Yuri Doroshenko had no diseases capable of provoking pulmonary edema: he had no asthma, no severe pancreatitis, no primary venous constriction, no mitral stenosis, no other diseases of the same series. We know this for sure, since Yuri studied at the military department of the UPI, passed a corresponding medical commission from which he could not conceal such diseases. Yes, and he could not be engaged in tourism at all desire, because the first hike in the mountains with a two-puffed backpack over his shoulders would have ended for him tragically. Therefore, all the attempts of the "researchers" of the tragedy of Igor Dyatlov's group to find a disease in Yuri Doroshenko, capable of explaining the appearance of gray foam, do not cost a penny. Doroshenko was healthy - this must be taken for granted and not invent fiction.
   However, the foam at his mouth and nose existed and it was undoubtedly of a pulmonary origin - sticky and stable, as it did not disappear during all those days, when the Ural winds blew the body lying on the hillock. It did not disappear later - during the transportation of the body from the cedar to the pass, to the helicopter, and later, during the defrosting of the body in the morgue. She was seen and described by the forensic medical expert Revived, leaving to the investigators of the tragedy of the tourist group another mystery, which seems paradoxical. If you drop crazy versions about drowning in a waterless area or poisoning with some toxic gas (why did not the other "dyatlovites" poison them?), Then we have the only explanation for the appearance of this foam.
   And this explanation is possible only within the criminal version of the death of the group.

The allocation of reddish (brown) foam from the lungs is possible even for a perfectly healthy person, which was Yuri Doroshenko, with the so-called. "Carmine" edema of the lungs. This phenomenon was described as far back as 1878 by the famous French forensic physician Alexander Lakassan, so sometimes this feature is called his name. I must say that Lacassan made several important discoveries in the field of forensic medicine; in particular, he was the first to assess the forensic value of cadaveric stains, linking their appearance with the position of the body of the deceased and the time of death. Also, Lakassan first drew attention to the value of tattoos for human identification and conducted perhaps the world's first scientific study of European tattoo designs. Against the backdrop of the undoubtedly huge contribution of Alexander Lakassan to the development of world forensic medicine, the discovery of "carmine" edema of the lungs is somehow lost and seems insignificant. Meanwhile, we are talking about a very interesting phenomenon from a medical point of view.
   Studying the corpses of people killed under the rubble (miners under the ground, or killed under the ruins of houses), Alexander Lakassan drew attention to the fact that some of them died from suffocation even in conditions of free air access and without mechanical damage to the chest. In other words, the ribs of such dead remained intact, the lungs were intact, but for some reason the person could not breathe. Lakassan associated this with the fact that the chest or abdomen of a littered person was under the influence of a static load that violated the proper circulation of blood in the internal organs. Already at a load of 50 kg. on the chest, the outflow of arterial blood in the large circle of blood circulation sharply decreases, while the flow of blood into the lungs continues. Blood pressure in the lung capillaries begins to grow, resulting in hydrostatic edema of the lungs. Pulmonary tissue and edematous fluid at the opening of people who died in such conditions, have an unusual alo-red color, which predetermined the name of this kind of edema ("carmine").
   It develops in the unstressed compression of the human body (that is, there are no traces of trauma on the body of the corpse) and is characterized by a slow development of asphyxiation, which, depending on external conditions, the magnitude of the load and the site of its application, can stretch for tens of minutes.
   In all countries of the world, where there are any serious special forces, the methods of the so-called. "Intensive interrogation" of prisoners of war, conducted in field (ie, unequipped) conditions with the aim of obtaining information as quickly as possible. Sometimes they are called "express interrogations" - a name that truly speaks for itself. Methodical instructions and recommendations on the organization of this kind of interrogation, regulating the order of their conduct, now do not constitute secrets, although it should be noted that practically every military unit has its own "informal" tricks for unleashing languages. Any such interrogation begins with the fact that the interrogated person is brought to a position lying on his back, and his hands are fixed divorced in the sides. Such a situation guarantees complete helplessness and humiliation of the interrogated. Then the interrogator sits on the chest to his victim, so that the head of the latter is between his thighs, after which the actual interrogation begins, that is, a consistent exchange of questions and answers. If the interrogated person refuses to cooperate or reports incorrect information, the interrogator uses methods of physical influence or intimidation, the arsenal of which is very large. The simplest and most effective method of this kind is the pressure on the eyeballs with the thumbs of the fingers - this effect, leaving no traces of obvious trauma, can suppress the will to resist and cause the terror of even the most fearless people. There are other simple but effective techniques: punching in the pencil's ear, grinding the tooth with a filerail or file ... it can be continued for a long time, but the technical side of the organization of such interrogation, I think, is understandable - there are no "heels in the fire," massacre, everything is clear, functional and as quickly as possible.

It should be noted, however, that even without special "torture" methods, intensive interrogation is a very, very painful procedure, because the interrogator is constantly sitting on the chest of the interrogated person. The thus created static pressure proves to be a provocateur of the very "carmine" edema of the lungs, which was mentioned just above. The fact that the weight of a strong man, clothed in winter clothes, with weapons in his hands, can reach (and significantly exceed) a centner, seems quite reasonable assumption. Such a man in a sitting position will create a static load on the chest of a person lying beneath him, much greater than 50 kg., Which Lacassin considered a "threshold" for the development of "carmine" edema of the lungs. Anyone who doubts the effectiveness of such an impact can conduct an experiment at home - lie back on the floor and ask any of the household members of the proper complexion to sit on the chest, stretching their legs, and sit quietly for a while. Two-three-minute field experiment will put everything in its place and significantly enrich life experience.
   When foreign scouts jumped out to the cedar, they were obviously surprised, not seeing the entire group near the fire. Instead of 9 people there were only two, and one of them (George Krivonischenko) either was sitting on a tree, or managed to get there when the killers approached. Therefore, remaining under the tree, Yuri Doroshenko was subjected to intensive interrogation under all the rules of the "sabotage science" - with bringing to the position of lying and static slow strangulation. He had to say where the whole group had gone. But he did not say (and we will prove it). Perhaps he was asked and some other questions, for example, related to the personal composition of the participants - we can not know this, and this knowledge will not help us in understanding what happened. It is important that the massacre of Yuri Doroshenko could be observed (at least, by hearing) by all members of the group who were still alive, since the distance from the cedar to the floor in the ravine is completely covered by the human voice. A cry under the cedar in the case of intensive interrogation (count torture) should have been awful.
   The situation of the interrogated was aggravated by the general cooling of the body and the loss of strength caused by the struggle against the cold. In addition, the rapid development of "carmine" edema was influenced by the fact that Doroshenko lay on the frozen earth, which increased the spasm of blood vessels and accelerated the onset of fatal consequences. We can assume that the agony of the choking followed quite quickly - about 5-7 minutes from the start of the interrogation. Seeing that Doroshenko had a bloody foam from his mouth and nose, the torturers interrupted the interrogation and perhaps even took the simplest measures to help-turned them over their chests, knocked on their backs - hoping that this would help to restore breathing. But only urgent resuscitation measures could save Yuriy Doroshenko. He passed away, lying face down, in this position of the killer and left the body, but we know for sure that at first he was lying on his back and the swelling of the lungs began in this position, because the foam that was released drained from his mouth to the cheek. In addition, in the hair of George Doroshenko were found needles and moss, which would have been impossible if he had always been facing the ground.
   Concluding the conversation about the violent killing of Yuri Doroshenko, it remains to point out two points that are important for excluding possible rumors. Firstly, it should be emphasized that the "carmine" edema of the lungs could not have been the result of an avalanche that had overwhelmed it on the slope. The death of a young man was in a direct investigation with the edema of the lungs and was separated from the latter by an insignificant interval of time. If the edema started in a tent on the mountainside, Doroshenko would not have managed to descend to the cedar before the time of death. And even more so, would not take part in the cultivation of a bonfire under a tree (which he was actively engaged in and there is no doubt about it). Secondly, it is necessary to explain that the change in the original scarlet color of the foam to gray is due to the destruction of blood cells for a long time that has passed since its formation. It is well known that blood on the air darkens, so the purchase of foam gray-brown shade should not surprise. For us, it is important that the original foam was not white, and therefore there was blood in it.

During the interrogation Doroshenko watched - could not help but observe - Georgy Krivonischenko. Most likely, at the time of the enemy's appearance at the cedar, he either was on a tree, or managed to scramble upward. His actions, in spite of seeming pointlessness, were quite rational: George most likely understood that the enemy, although threatened with a weapon, did not really intend to use it. Remove the same from the tree of an actively resisting adult man without the use of firearms is quite problematic - there is a considerable risk of injury (which, of course, foreign agents, of course, could not admit). Therefore, it is entirely possible that Georgiy expected to sit out some time above, in the hope that some events would distract the criminals from the tree and he will have the opportunity to go down to try to escape already on the ground. However, what really counted George we do not know and we can not know, so his motivation is just a conjecture that does not have a direct relationship to the plot of the narrative.
   But we know for sure that Georgy Krivonischenko climbed on the cedar and in the last moments of his life struggled to stay on it. Tom in the criminal case has an unexpected testimony, unfortunately, none of the investigators of the tragedy properly evaluated. What is it about?
   The forensic scientist, Revived, conducting an autopsy of Georgy Krivonischenko's corpse, discovered a piece of epidermis measuring 1 to 0.5 cm in the mouth of the deceased. He even linked the origin of this piece of skin with a scalped wound on the finger of his right hand. All this looked as if the deceased at the moment of agony clenched his teeth with his fingers - it was squeezing, clenching his jaws, and not warming, say, with his breath. Why George could gnaw his own hand?
   Here it must be said that in the criminal history of mankind there are many (many dozens!) Of absolutely reliable examples of heavy self-harm in the hands brushes. All of them are connected with attempts of the person to accelerate approach of own death. It is known that the overwhelming majority of people who were buried alive or alive by the people immured tormented themselves with heavy damage to their wrists and even chewed their hands in the hope of causing profuse bleeding. Insane persons are capable of analogous self-harassment. However, with all the amusement of this information, it does not give us anything, because it is impossible to draw a parallel with the situation in which Georgy Krivonischenko turned out to be. Something else was clearly going on with him. But what exactly?
   It seems that the answer must be sought in the cold, more precisely by the inevitable hypothermia of the organism, with which George Krivonischenko collided. Lowering body temperature automatically leads to a slowdown of all biochemical reactions and, in particular, so-called. "Tissue respiration". The amount of oxygen carried by the blood into each cell of the human body begins to decrease, as a result of which the phenomenon that has been called "tissue hypoxia" develops in medicine. It manifests itself in the form of sudden drowsiness, a feeling of deep apathy, adynamia (unwillingness to move), severe weakness. When the onset of tissue hypoxia, the active struggle for life usually stops, although the person who freezes for a while remains conscious and is aware of what is happening. If at the beginning of freezing a person experiences severe pain in cooling extremities, then at this stage their sensitivity practically disappears. And with it disappears and the ability for precise coordinated action. George in this condition could not hold onto the branches of the cedar, squeezing them with his hands - his hands were no longer obeyed to the proper degree, his fingers were simply unclenched under the weight of his body. But he could grasp the trunk or branch with his hand and, biting his finger (or several fingers, or the edge of the palm) with teeth, create a kind of "lock" that kept from falling. When the process of hypothermia went too far and Krivonischenko lost consciousness, he lost control of his actions together with him, which led to the fact that his clenched hand slipped, leaving a scalped piece of skin in his mouth.
   Another physiological feature of the freezing process is another unusual feature of the death of Georgy Krivonischenko. It is about the fullness of his bladder, and this indicator is directly related to the dying activity of a freezing person. So, for example, in people who died in the cold in a state of strong alcohol intoxication, the bladder is usually full, or even full of light urine. In sober people, this feature is observed very rarely, rather, as an exception. Forensic medicine explains this by the fact that people under the "degree" usually do not fight the cold (often, generally die in a dream), while a sober person is actively engaged in self-salvation - trying to equip a shelter, warms the active movements of the hands, legs, squats , runs to the side of the dwelling, etc. That is, the fullness of the bladder is an exaggerated "talking" sign that can clarify the picture of the very last hour of the life of a person who died from hypothermia.

So, we have Krivonischenko and Doroshenko - two people of about the same age and state of health who for a certain amount of time worked under certain conditions and died in the same conditions and engaged in similar work - active and energy-consuming. They both climbed on the cedar and broke off its branches, the bloody prints of their hands remained on the bark and branches of the tree and in late February 1959 they were seen by the search engines. The dead were warmed about equally, or rather, equally badly - they did not have headdresses, gloves and shoes. And what will we see if we compare the fullness of the bladder? In Doroshenko, the expert determined the volume of urine in 150 ml., And in Krivonischenko - up to 500 ml. The difference is three times! From what? It should not be, if we assume that both young people died approximately at the same time, having fulfilled the amount of work proportional to the physical possibilities of each.
   But everything will immediately fall into place, if we agree with the assumption that the death of Yuri Doroshenko and Georgy Krivonishenko followed at different times. The death of the first, we recall, was provoked by pulmonary edema and followed even before his body produced the entire resource of glycogen (a substance whose cleavage is the most important element of heat production). In other words, Doroshenko at the time of death still retained the inner energy for active living and the process of tissue hypoxia in his body did not go far. With Krivonishchenko the picture is quite different - the fullness of his bladder indirectly indicates that, some time before death, he lost his motor activity due to the developed oxygen starvation in tissues (the same hypoxia). Krivonischenko died later, and much later Doroshenko - we can talk about dozens of minutes. During these long minutes he almost did not move and did not go into the ravine to his comrades-in other words, he did nothing to save himself! And after all comrades did not come to him, they did not take him away from the windy place, although it was enough for him to shout: "Guys, I'm dying!" I freeze! "and shodded and dressed Tibo and Zolotaryov rushed to him. Of course, they would not have saved him, but at least they took them to the ravine, from the windswept hillock ...
   But it was not. Georgi did not call anyone to help. And in itself, none of his friends came to him. Absolutely incomprehensible behavior, if only we do not admit that all the time, while George Krivonischenko froze on the cedar, under the tree stood his killers.
   Once again, none of them tried to climb the cedar, because the unsuccessful fall from the tree could potentially cause serious injury, and this was unacceptable for foreign agents. They had a many kilometers to the railroad, and for that they all had to stay healthy. Therefore, they simply waited until the stubborn Komsomol member froze, perhaps joking: "All the same, you'll fall off, it's better to get down, we'll kill you softly!" Perhaps, on the contrary, we spoke with him quite seriously, because they had the same liaison to meet with which they were abandoned in the USSR: "Tell me, from when did you work under the control of KGB? He, the mustachioed man with the camera, is he also from the Committee? Get down, do not be afraid, we will not torment you, they will rob your own gabists, and we can give poison if you wish ... "
   Of course, such talk is just a literary fiction, but the fact that some conversations between the enemy and Georgi Krivonischenko were conducted, there is little doubt about it. George died a long time - 20 minutes or 30 minutes - and at first could still respond to the replies addressed to him. Then he fell silent, completely concentrating the melting forces and the fading consciousness on how to stay on the tree. Then he began to grind his teeth with the edge of his right palm and fingers, hoping to keep the body from falling.

But in the end, his hands were released and George fell down. From the fall, apparently, he did not even come to himself; his situation at that time was so bad that the agents of foreign intelligence under the cedar immediately refused to question him. It is possible that Krivonischenko was either already dead, or was close to it. And then the scouts did with the body of George what they do not notice and do not even try to explain the supporters of non-criminal versions, since they have not committed any non-criminal explanations.
   They decided to make sure of his death ...
   It is a huge burn of the left leg of George Krivonischenko, caused through clothes. Forensic expert Revived in the anatomy of George measured the burn of the pants, in which he was found (the size of the hole was 31 cm by 10 cm). The skin of the shin was subjected to partial charring - this is possible only by direct contact with open fire (in other words, boiling water will not have such an effect). But interestingly, a thin cotton sock on the left foot did not burn in this flame! This is another interesting, paradoxical, really "talking" fact that can tell a lot about real events near the fire, which all sorts of "explorers" simply ignore. However, to be quite accurate, they occasionally mention this strange burn immediately explaining his appearance by the fact that the frozen Georgy did not feel the heat of the fire and put his hands and feet into the fire, eventually obtaining such a fantastic burn in all senses. After such a ridiculous explanation, literally in one line, in one sentence, the "researchers" believe that everything is clarified and rush on, speculating on the layers of "firn" snow, with frost at -30 ° C on the night of February 2, 1959. and similar abstract and unchecked things today, on the way refuting each other. But here is the question for all mountaineers, climbers, divers, horse sweepers, tourists with experience and without, masters of sports and masters of non-sports, as well as supporters of the version of the moose attack: how can you burn the pants on the shins, burn to charring the skin, but not burn a sock in the fire?
   Gentlemen "explorers", climbers and divers, masters of sports and non-sports can arbitrarily position the owner of the foot by the fire - sitting, standing, lying on their side and even standing on their heads - but in none of these positions is the damage from fire naturally receive is not possible. Either the pants will burn with the toe, or they will not burn at all - a man will pull out his leg and do not get a terrible burn. But here we must immediately make an important clarification - in fact on the leg of George Krivonishchenko, not only pants were burned, but also thin cotton sports pants (more on this later). That is, the problem is even more complicated from the point of view of physics - at least two pieces of clothing are burnt out, the skin on the shins is charred (and on a pretty decent square!), And the sock located next to the source of open fire does not burn. How is this possible with natural combinations of the relative location of the foot and the source of fire ?!
   Generally speaking, in any way. But with unnatural such a strange damage can be obtained in just 20-30 seconds.
   Such a fire is possible in the event that you put a burning coniferous branch on your leg - it gives a strong heat, but quickly burns out. The sock and ankle of George Krivonischenko were in a fairly thick layer of snow, and melted from the inside and formed an ice cake even when the foot had not cooled down and had a rather high temperature. This snow-ice "coat" thickness of 1.5-2 cm saved a thin x / paper sock from burning - the snow did not have time to melt, and if it did, the wet sock did not have time to dry out (any wet object should dry before burning). Meanwhile, George's pants and pants did not have such protection and burned out in a matter of seconds under the influence of the hot flame of the coniferous "paw". But the total time of fire exposure was calculated not in seconds, but in tens or several tens of seconds - since in a few seconds the skin can not be charred (of course, we do not consider high-temperature heat sources, like electric crucibles, gas welding, acetylene burners, etc., in the Urals taiga could not be).

This burning coniferous "paw" was laid on Krivonischenko's leg when his body was in the "lying on the back" position. Therefore, neither pants nor sports pants burned from the side of the roe - this part of the leg was pressed to the ground. If the lower part of George's foot had hit the fire, we would have seen a very different picture - the flame would completely burn the tissue around the leg and lead to the appearance of a girdle burn. And this is not, George has a burn from the side of the shin bone.
   However, the oddities associated with burns and burns are not exhausted!
   In addition to the cotton tricot and pants, Georgy Krivonischenko wore another pair of trousers - the same ones with radioactive dust, which eventually were found on Lyudmila Dubinina. We know the peculiarity of this detail of the clothes - unlike the usual thin sports pants, these did not have a loop at the bottom, covering the heel, in other words, the lower part of the pants was fixed on the leg with an elastic band (therefore, in the radiological examination text, these pants are called "trousers", although strictly speaking, they were not bloomers in the usual sense). We know that these "trousers" were "very torn and sometimes burned" (from the text of the forensic medical examination of the Revived). However, there is no question about the burn of these trousers in the size of 31 cm by 10 cm, but the reborn, scrupulously describing the gaps and cuts of clothing, in this case, did not fix such damage.
   And this is what happens to the masters of "non-criminal versions": Krivonischenko's outer trousers ("trousers") without a burn, thin sports x / paper pants under them - with a burn and pants that are closest to the body, also with a burn. About the skin on the shins with charring and remind, perhaps, not worth it. How can this be? What did Georgi Krivonischenko have to do with his legs and pants to get such damage naturally?
   The supporters of non-criminal versions can not come up with explanations for this, therefore they do not explain it.
   However, a simple and logical explanation is very simple and quick, as soon as we agree with the assumption that under the cedar at the time of Georgy Krivonischenko's death there were people hostile to him and to the entire group of Igor Dyatlov. After the deceased (or agonizing) George fell from the tree next to the burnt fire, his opponents had to make sure that he did not pretend death. Quite reasonable precaution, you will agree. In combat (or field) conditions, knowledgeable people make this check extremely simple - they open the eyelids being checked and they put a finger on the eyeball with some pressure: it is believed that if a person is alive, the reflex movement of the eye will show it. In addition, the pressure on the eyeball of a dead person leads to a change in the shape of the pupil - it becomes oval (this is the so-called "sign of Beloglazov" - the most reliable early sign of the onset of death.) This very effective and rapid implementation of the method has only one drawback - it is well visible in the light, but in the dark you can not see the reaction of the eyeball tritely.
   Therefore, foreign intelligence officers used another unpretentious method, known since the Ancient World (it is believed that this way they checked the death of gladiators after the battle) - they put a lighted spruce (or fir) paw to their feet. Since the lapnik, which was broken by the "woodpeckers" lay around the cedar literally in bulk, one of the scouts took a coniferous branch with a width of 20-30 cm and threw it on the coals of the fire. After she broke out, this man approached Krivonischenko's body and lifted up (up to the knee or above) the left leg, hoping to expose his leg. This was not difficult to do, since the bottom of the trousers was on an elastic band and was not fixed on the leg, but ... under the "trousers" was a sporty tights, which could not be climbed upward (the trousers had a noose that covered the heel). In order not to bother with these pants, a person just threw a burning branch of the tin-plum on the shin. She burned 15-20 seconds, maybe a little more, burned her sports pants, pants, burned her leg ... but she did not burn the sock and the "trousers", tucked up, did not burn either.

That's why Lyudmila Dubinina some time later took advantage of these pants.
   The mentioned sock on the left foot of George Krivonischenko is especially noteworthy in the context of our reasoning, also because he was partially burned, but not on the top (from the ankle), as one would expect, and from below - from the foot. There, this sock had a hole longer than 10 cm, which corresponded to a burn of 10 cm by 4 cm. Apparently, George stepped on the bullet rolled out of the fire and did not notice it immediately because of a partial loss of sensitivity. When he felt pain and removed his leg, the toe was already burned, and a burn appeared on his foot. The presence on the foot of this burn clearly exposes the main strangeness of the thermal impact on the shin - it's strange not that the flame burned sports pants and pants, but what has not burned the sock. That is, the fire effect was hot, but relatively short-lived; such an unusual effect is possible precisely with the use of burning lapnika.
   Foreign agents, of course, did not throw the branches into the fire - it was simply unnecessary for them. Therefore, all the time while they interrogated Yuri Doroshenko and waited for the death of Georgy Krivonischenko, the fire burned at the expense of the brushwood, originally drafted by "dyatlovtsami." After he burned down, the fire naturally went out. It happened about an hour after the start of the burning - it was determined by the search engines who saw the fire at the end of February 1959 and this statement fully corresponds to our version of the development of events. Thus, if we assume that the fire under the cedar was lit about 17 hours, then it went out in the area of ​​18. By this time only those of the "woodpeckers" who were hiding in the "cache" by the stream remained alive.
   After the crackdown on tourists at the cedar, the killers found themselves in an unpleasant situation for them, since they clearly did not know which direction to move on. They did not receive the necessary information from Doroshenko or Krivonischenko, but they could not find the way to the stream by themselves - this is clearly indicated by the fact that they did not leave for the "flooring". The evidence in favor of this consideration is that between the death of the last four "woodpeckers" and the killing of Krivonischenko and Doroshenko, there was a certain interval of time. Its length is difficult to assess quantitatively - it could be several tens of minutes, and several hours - but this interval took place unconditionally, because it was during this time that the bodies of Doroshenko and Krivonishchenko were stripped.