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Forensic medical examination of the bodies of Yuri Doroshenko, Georgy Krivonischenko, Zinaida Kolmogorova and Igor Dyatlov
March 4 expert forensics Regional Office, Boris A. Vozrozdenyi and the city medical examiner Severoural'sk Ivan Ivanovich Laptev was examined with four dead bodies of tourists brought in Ivdel. In order to correctly assess the circumstances of the incident on the slope Holat-Sjahyl, describe the clothes that have been delivered the dead tourists for anatomical studies and major injuries noted by experts: a) Yuri Doroshenko, one of the two, found under a cedar tourists. It is known that this was the strongest and tallest (180 cm) member of the group Dyatlov. He wore a sleeveless tank top and staple shirt (ie, a thin cloth, not a flannel) shirt with a short sleeve; melting, satin panties and knitted pants. All 6 buttons of the cowboy were fastened, both breast pockets were empty. On the legs - a different number of socks: on the left - two knitted and thick wool with a burned area of 2,0 * 5,0 cm, and on the right - the remnants of the cotton socks and woolen. Doroshenko's pants were severely torn: the left leg in the middle third of the inner surface of the thigh had a gap of 13.0 * 13.0 cm, and the right trouser on the front surface of the thigh and even more - 22.0 * 23.0 cm. In the hair of the deceased, the expert found particles of moss and pine needles, in addition, on the right side of the head in its temporal, parietal and occipital parts, the ends of the hair were burnt. The complexion of the deceased was defined by the phrase "brown-lilac". Cadaveric spots are located on the back of the neck, trunk and extremities, which contradicts the position of the body in which it was found (remember Yuri Doroshenko was lying face down, respectively, cadaveric spots were observed on the chest, abdomen and forelimb surfaces). The experts did not explain this contradiction in their conclusion, simply bypassing it with silence (therefore in the future it will have to be done to us).
The revived and Laptev recorded the following injuries of Yuri Doroshenko (for clarity, we will present them on the anatomical diagram):
Generalized scheme of injuries of Yuri Doroshenko.
- burned hair ends on the right side of the head (pos.1) - the back of the nose, the tip of the nose and the upper lip - in the blood (pos.2) (this is an obvious evidence of intravital nasal bleeding);
- the upper lip is edematous, on it - hemorrhage of red color in the size 1,5 * 2,0 sm (it is difficult to understand the reason of this edema, probably, the lost bitten lip) (pos.3);
- right cheek "covered with a layer of frothy gray liquid color, from the opening of the mouth traces of separation liquid gray" (pay attention to the "bubble liquid" on the cheek of the deceased Forensic experts did not explain its emergence and to the question about the reasons for this strange physiological phenomena we have to. return elsewhere);
- in the area of the right ear (lobes and tragus) a dense section of brownish-red color measuring 6.0 * 1.5 cm (pos.5), near the tragus of the left ear - a similar area of parchment skin 4.0 * 1.0 cm (pos.4) (it is difficult to understand the mechanism of such trauma localized in the ear region, if only the trauma was of a natural nature);
- at the anterior edge of the right axillary line - a skin sling of 2.0 * 1.5 cm (pos.6);
- on the inner surface of the right shoulder in the middle third, two abrasions measuring 2.0 * 1.5 cm "of parchment density without hemorrhage into the underlying tissues. Two cut line "(and from the text of the Act is not clear who made these incisions are made in the area of the abrasion -. experts, autopsy, or someone to them if the first is not clear the purpose of both the cutting and the mention of this, because The act of forensic medical examination such small manipulations are usually not described) (item 7);
- on the front surface of the right shoulder, small abrasions of a brown-red color of parchment density without hemorrhage into the underlying tissues (in fact, scratches) (pos.8);
- in the region of the upper third of the right forearm, bruise-red abrasions in the form of strips measuring 4.0 * 1.0 cm, 2.5 * 1.5 cm and 5.0 * 0.5 cm (pos. 9);
- minor abrasions in the lower third of the right forearm (pos.10);
- in the area of the right hand, swelling of soft tissues and minor abrasions (pos.11);
- on the back of the right hand, in the region of the 2nd metacarpal bone, an abrasion of 2.0 * 1.5 cm in size is brownish-red with a hemorrhage into the underlying soft tissues (pos.12);
- fingers, especially the terminal phalanx, dark-lilac color (indication of frostbite is not lower, apparently, 3 items) (pos.13);
- On the inner surface of the left shoulder in its lower third, three brown-red abrasions were found with dimensions of 3.0 * 0.5 cm, 1.5 * 0.7 cm and 1.0 * 1.5 cm (pos.14);
- on the lateral surface of the left elbow joint, small bruise-red abrasions and abrasions measuring 2.0 * 3.0 cm with slip traces (pos.15);
- on the inner surface of the left forearm on the border of the middle third and lower third (ie, just below the middle) a wound of an irregular oval shape measuring 0.6 * 0.5 cm with traces of clotted blood (pos.16);
- in the right iliac region, a cutaneous scar 8 cm in size was detected (apparently, a trace of an operation to remove appendicitis);
- On the anterior surfaces of both shins, in the middle third, the deposits of pale-red skin of parchment density are noticeable: on the left leg measuring 8.0 * 4.0 cm, on the right leg 5.0 * 1.5 cm (pos.17);
- The end phalanx of the toes is dark-lilac (the same frostbite as the fingers.) If Yuri Doroshenko were to survive, he would likely face amputation of all fingers) (pos.18).
When examining the internal organs of the deceased, experts noted the fullness of the meninges, characteristic of the deceased from hypothermia. In the stomach was found a large number of small hemorrhages, usually called "Vishnevsky spots" (the name of a Russian scientist, Zemsky doctor from Saratov, who first described them as much in 1895). The presence of "spots Vishnevsky" is another significant sign of death from the effects of low temperatures. In addition to the above, experts have documented the fullness of the kidneys and the bloodiness of the heart with blood - this is also an important evidence of a strong and, in fact, lifetime cooling of the body.
In the lungs, the same "foamy fluid" was detected, the isolation of which from the mouth was noted during external examination (literally in the Act on the condition of the lungs it is written like this (the spelling of the original is preserved): "the lungs from the surface are cyanotic red, test doughs to the touch, on sections of lung tissue of dark red color, when pressed from the surface of the incision, a lot of liquid dark blood and a foamy watery liquid flow "). No explanation was given to the origin of the "frothy, watery liquid" in the resultant part of its Act - they simply ignored this fact. Meanwhile, there are very few reasons for the appearance of such an unusual physiological secretion, and all of them have nothing to do with freezing. In the future, we still have to return to the analysis of this observation and try to give him a reasonable explanation, since the fact of allocation of foam from the mouth of the deceased carries in itself extremely valuable information about the last minutes of his life.
The amount of urine in the bladder was determined to be 150 cc. see Bladder fullness is considered one of the significant signs of death from hypothermia (the so-called sign of Samson-Himmelshtirna). The phenomenon is due to inhibition of the central nervous system of the freezing person and a violation of the innervation of the bladder, which makes it lose its ability to contract. The general rule is that the amount of urine indirectly indicates the activity of self-salvage actions - the more freezing moves, the less filled his bladder will be. It is true that the reverse observation - if a man lies in a snowdrift, falls asleep and is frozen, his bladder will be full. The reborn and Laptev knew this very well, so they carefully recorded the amount of urine from each of the dead. However, in 1959, experts did not know that this observation was true for those who died from the effects of low temperatures, whose bodies were not freezed. Now it is considered that in those cases when the bodies were completely frozen and then thawed, the dependence of the amount of urine on the vital activity loses its relevance (unambiguous correspondence). Therefore, this feature in the case of tourists from the group of Igor Dyatlov modern forensic experts would hardly consider essential for the reconstruction of the picture of what happened. However, we need to talk more than once about the specifics of examinations over half a century ago in this study.
Bone and cartilage fractures were fixed by experts. Traces of alcohol - too.
Based on the totality of signs of death from hypothermia, found during the study of the state of internal organs, and the presence of frostbite, the experts considered that "Doroshenko's death came from the effect of low temperature (freezing) (...)". Bodily injuries - bruises and abrasions - according to experts "belong to the category of lungs without a disorder of health." They explained their appearance by Doroshenko's falling on stones or ice, and also by blows with their hands and feet on surrounding objects in a state of agony. The onset of death, in their opinion, took place 6-8 hours after the last meal.
Generalized scheme of injuries of Georgi Krivonischenko.
George (Yuri) Krivonischenko, like Yuri Doroshenko found under the cedar. He was dressed in a strapless shirt, a cowboy, swimming trunks, pants and one ripped cotton sock on his left leg. In the course of a pathoanatomical study, Boris Alekseevich Vozrozdenyi described the following main injuries to Krivonischenko (see the corresponding diagram):
- abrasions on the forehead measuring 0.3 * 0.3 cm and 1.8 * 0.8 cm and a left temple 1.0 * 0.2 cm (pos.1);
- in the right temporal and occipital region, a diffuse hemorrhage with impregnation of the right temporal muscle (pos.2);
- the tip of the nose is absent (presumably birded) (pos.3);
- frost-bitten ears (pos.4);
- sediments on the right side of the chest with dimensions of 7.0 * 2.0 cm, 2.0 * 1.2 cm and 1.0 * 1.2 cm (pos.5);
- on the hands of an epidermal epidermis with a width of up to 2.0 cm, on the back of the palms, on the fingers of a wound measuring 1.5 * 1.0 cm and 1.0 * 0.5 cm (pos.6);
- exfoliation of the epidermis on the back of the left palm with a width of up to 2.0 cm (pos.7);
- a fragment of the epidermis from the finger of the right hand was found behind the teeth in the mouth of the deceased, the size of this skin area was about 1.0 * 0.5 cm;
- skin firming on hips, right hip - 5.0 * 2.0 cm and 3.0 * 1.0 cm (pos 8-9), left - 1.0 * 2.0 cm and 1.0 * 1 , 5 cm (pos.10-11). In addition, small scratches there;
- sediments on the right tibia measuring 7.0 * 1.0 cm and 2.0 * 1.0 cm (pos.12 and 14);
- a significant burn (charring) of the left calf, the burn margin within the range of 31.0 * 10.0 cm. The pants on the left shin are burned to the knee (but not completely, the tissue on the left calyx is preserved) (pos.13);
- on the left buttock, an abrasion measuring 10.0 * 3.0 cm (pos.16);
- abrasions on the external lateral surface of the left hip with dimensions 6.0 * 2.0 cm and 4.0 * 5.0 cm (pos.17-18);
- sediments on the left calf 2.0 * 1.0 cm, 2.0 * 1.5 cm, 3.0 * 1.3 cm (pos.19-21);
- a burn of the left foot measuring 10.0 * 4.0 cm (pos.15).
The amount of urine in the bladder was estimated at 500 g. The forensic expert considered that the death of Georgy Krivonischenko "came as a result of exposure to low temperature (freezing) ... In the external investigation, damage in the form of precipitation, grazes, skin wounds could arise as a result of falling and bruises on stones, ice and so on." about. The death of both young, athletic and healthy men, Vozrozdenyi explained by natural causes.
Zinaida Kolmogorova was dressed better than the men found under the cedar. On the girl's head were two hats - a thin knitted blue, attached to hair with a hairpin, and a red woolen knotted under the chin with a "bow". On top of the underwear was a T-shirt with long sleeves, a turtleneck sweater inside out, a shirt with a cowboy, on top of it was a blue sweater with a torn off cuff (cuff?) Of the right sleeve, also put on the inside. The lower part of the body was also protected by several layers of clothing - trousers with nachos, cotton sports trousers and ski pants with fasteners on the sides. The right leg of the latter had at the bottom three small ruptures. The buckles on Kolmogorov's ski pants were located on each side and the buttons on both sides were unbuttoned (this part should be noted). On the feet of Zina were three sock - two thin wiggonies and one wool. Inside woolen insoles were put. In the pockets of Zina Kolmogorova found 5 rubles. and a protective mask of a military design. This mask was on the left side of the chest between the top sweater and the shirt-cowboy. The presence on the body of two sweaters, put on the inside, should not confuse apparent strangeness - it is a way of drying things on the body that is common in hiking trips.
Of the injuries and significant pathological changes, the forensic medical expert noted the following (see the corresponding diagram):
Generalized scheme of bodily injuries Zinaida Kolmogorova.
- Edema of the meninges (this sign is significant when ascertaining death from hypothermia);
- frostbites of 3-4 degrees of phalanx of fingers;
- Numerous abrasions in the sizes from 1,5 * 1,0 sm up to 0,3 * 3,0 sm on brushes of hands and palms (poses 2 and 3);
- wound 3,0 * 3,2 cm with a scalped skin flap on the right hand (pos.2);
- surrounding the right side, shifting to the back, skin firming of 29.0 * 6.0 cm (pos.1 and 4)
The amount of urine in the bladder was estimated at 300 g. Bodily injuries, according to the expert, were received by Kolmogorova during life, or in the agonistic state as a result of falls and bruises on stones, ice or snow. Her death was qualified as a "violent, unfortunate incident". It should be mentioned that, as the expert established, the deceased did not live a sexual life; this circumstance must be indicated in order to properly assess the nature of the relationship between Zina Kolmogorova and Igor Dyatlov.
Finally, Igor Dyatlov - the fourth of the dead tourists, whose body was found in late February 1959. Height of 175 cm, the complexion is described as "cyanotic red". The head of the deceased was not covered, on the body the unbuttoned fur sleeveless shirt (a quilted jacket with a blue cloth on the front side and dark gray fur inside), under it there was a blue sweater, a red / red cowboy, in a breastplate pocket of which 4 tablets "streptotsida" in the package, and under the cowboy - blue knitted "sleeveless". From the description in the Act of forensic medical examination it is difficult to understand whether it is a knitted "sleeveless jacket" or a conventional tank top. But how can one conclude that Igor Dyatlov's torso insulation was "so-so". With the legs and lower back, things were even worse. The deceased were wearing ski trousers (now we would say - "pants") with a nap and belt "on the elastic band", beneath them, the paperclip pants are also "on the elastic". Under the trousers are simple black satin panties. The shoes were missing, woolen and x / paper socks were worn on the right foot, and on the left one was a cotton, "type of golf" (as in the Act).
Let's pay special attention to the fact that all the socks of Igor Diatlov were unpaired. This may mean one of two things: either the barefooted Dyatlov was given socks by the misfortune to his barefooted fellow, having taken off from himself, as soon as it became possible to do it in a more or less peaceful atmosphere (as they say, from a pine forest), or ... Igor himself took one from three socks with the right foot and put it on the left. I took, so to speak, obvious self-rescue actions. This observation makes us draw an interesting and important conclusion for subsequent reasoning that the dramatic events began on the slope of Holat-Sahyl at the very moment when Igor Dyatlov was barefoot, and in the literal sense of the word. Let's remember now this conclusion, in due time he will find his place in that puzzle piece that the participants of the drama splashed in an intricate way.
Watch "Star" on the hand of Dyatlov, as the experts recorded, showed 05:31.
The revived and Laptev noted the following bodily injuries of the deceased (the most significant of them are shown on the anatomical diagram):
- small abrasions of a dark red color on the frontal tubercles (pos.1);
- in the region of the left superciliary arc, an abrasion of the brown-red color of parchment density (post.2);
- on the upper eyelids of both eyes small abrasions;
- on the back and tip of the nose there is a section of brownish-red parchment density of 2.0 * 1.5 cm;
- in the area of both cheekbones, brown-red abrasions under the dry crust: on the right - small, and on the left 3, * 1.5 cm and 3.0 * 0.5 cm (pos.3);
- on the lips clotted blood (the source of bleeding compilers of the Act of SME is not specified);
- There is no central incisor on the lower jaw, the mucosa is unchanged. The last clarification indicates that the tooth, most likely, was lost long before death;
- On the left cheek small abrasions;
- on the lower third of the right forearm and palmar surface small bruises of dark red color (pos.4);
Generalized scheme of bodily injuries of Igor Dyatlov.
- In the area of metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints, soft brown-lilac tissues covered with dry crusted crusts with hemorrhages into the underlying tissues (in the sense of the text it is a question of the right hand.) Translating from Russian to understandable, it can be said that Igor Dyatlov was the knuckles of the right fist were knocked down.This happened some time before the death, which led to the formation of wounds on the wounds of blood clots and hemorrhage to the injured area.In that moment the peripheral blood supply still retained the actives Nosta and remained close to normal If the injury occurred just before his death, when the freezing process has gone far enough, bleeding into the underlying tissues have been observed).;
- on the left hand, bruise-lilac grays of parchment density with dimensions of 1.0 * 0.5 cm and 2.0 * 0.2 cm are also noted;
- On the palmar surface of the left hand, a superficial wound from the second to the fifth finger is found to a depth of 0.1 cm (pos.5) (This is a wound across the entire palm of your hand.) Without a photograph, it is difficult to say exactly what it looks like, but most of all a similar wound resembles a cut when trying to grab a knife by the blade);
- In the area of the knee joints, abrasions of a dark red color are noted: 1.0 * 0.5 cm on the right knee and 0.5 * 0.5 cm on the left knee (pos.6);
- on the lower third of the right shin the skin sling is 4.0 * 2.0 cm (pos.7);
- In the area of the left ankle joint on the front flank and the rear surface there are abrasions of brown-red color with dimensions of 1.0 * 0.5 cm and 3.0 * 2.5 cm with hemorrhages in the underlying tissues (pos.8).
The body of Igor Dyatlov in the morgue of the central hospital of Ivdel's ITK (so-called p / y 240) before the autopsy. In the background, on the next section table is the corpse of George Krivonischenko, whose autopsy was performed in the same place on the same day.
The deceased had no internal injuries. The forensic experts recorded signs characteristic of death from hypothermia, manifested in the state of internal organs - the fullness of the meninges, "Vishnevsky spots" on the stomach mucosa, and the overcrowding with blood of the internal organs - the heart, liver, kidneys.
The amount of urine in the bladder is up to a liter, more than the other members of the group. This does not mean that Igor Dyatlov least of all fought for the salvation of himself and his friends - this once again confirms the observation that for the fumigated corpses this feature is not significant. As in the remaining three cases, the expert concluded that the death of Igor Dyatlov was the result of hypothermia and was an accident.
What initial conclusions could be drawn from the analysis of the expertise of Boris Alekseevich Vozrozdenyi?
First of all, one can not but pay attention to the insufficient protection of those who died from the cold. Of the four dead, headgears were only from Zina Kolmogorova, and no one had shoes.
But in addition to this, forensic experts could not fail to note another oddity related to the peculiarities of the postures of the deceased. The fact is that the Soviet forensic science recommended the following to recognize the death from hypothermia: "Recognition. Death from hypothermia is associated with a primary disruption of life functions. There are no indisputable anatomical indicators. Therefore, the absence of possible diseases leading to death, and the absence of data on death from other external factors, when the deceased is in the conditions that are possible for the onset of death from cold (...) are of great importance. Here, the following are subject to registration: a) In external research: 1) body posture , reminiscent of a chilly person (...) "(quoted by MI Raisky" Forensic Medicine for Students and Doctors ", M., Medgiz, 1953, p.232). And what do we see? - none of the four corpses found in the area of Kholat-Sahyl in February-March 1959 had the same "pose of a chill man" (or "embryo posture"), as prescribed by academic science. Dying from the cold, he had to strive to reflexively minimize heat loss, that is, press his knees to his chest, grasp them with his hands, bend his head, thereby minimizing the surface area of the body through which heat is removed ... So in theory. And what about in practice? All four stretched out to their full height, the dyatlov's fur sleeveless was flung open and shifted somewhere in the armpits, 2 of the 3 buttons of his shirt-collars were unbuttoned (and the cuffs were zipped at the same time!). If we add to this the localization of cadaveric spots, which did not correspond to the position of the bodies when they were detected by the search engines, then the investigators involuntarily were born the thought that the poses of the dead and the position of their bodies were forced to change until the stiff rigor mortis. And the empty pockets of tourists' clothing gave rise to suspicions of a posthumous search.
In general, all this somehow did not quite correspond to the classical picture of death from freezing.
In addition, we can not fail to note the apparent imbalance in the clothes between the members of the group: the Dyatlovs and Kolmogorovs found on the slope had several pants, while Doroshenko and Krivonischenko were stripped to the pants. And the verb "undressed" should be understood literally, both of them were probably really undressed after death by comrades, trying to use their clothes. The cuts found on Doroshenko's hands were applied through clothing when trying to cut off the sleeves of sweaters or jackets that were still not found at the time of drawing up the FME acts. Cutting the sleeves of clothes with freezing people looked quite logical - you could put your hands or feet into sleeves using improvised socks or gloves. In addition, neat stripping of corpses with frost-bitten, slow-moving hands seemed almost impossible task, while using a knife accelerated and simplified this procedure.
The assumption of the stripping of Doroshenko and Krivonischenko corpses, at which the clothing was cut, was in good agreement with the actual location of the fragments of clothing found under the cedar. In the report of the inspection, compiled by the prosecutor Tempalov, a shirt with a cowboy with 8 rubles in his pocket, a burnt toe, a half-burnt helmet, are mentioned; In addition to this, other small objects, in particular, a handkerchief belonging to Dubinina, and a ragged (or cut off) sleeve of a black sweater appear in the memories of the participants of the search operation. Zina Kolmogorova was found in a sweater with a ragged sleeve sleeve, but obviously her sweater was not tearing at the fire, because the sleeve she found was different from him.
Yuri Yudin, attracted by the investigation to identify the things found on the pass, confidently found out in the blue fur sleeveless jacket in which Igor Dyatlov, his own thing, was dressed. Yudin gave this jersey to Doroshenko at the farewell on the morning of January 28. The fact that she ended up on another person only confirmed the fact of redistribution of things within the group.
Another important result of the examinations was the establishment of the fact that the dead tourists were sober and actively fought for their lives. It was known that they had two flasks of alcohol at their disposal, but forensic medical research removed all suspicions of the inadequacy of the behavior of members of the group or the conflict between them caused by drinking. The statement of this fact was essential for a correct understanding of what exactly could happen to the missing group.
One of the most important questions raised by the investigator before the forensic physician was the question of determining the time of death. The conclusions prepared by the Revivalist and Laptev on the results of the autopsy of the first four bodies gave answers that were consistent: according to experts, it could be about 6-8 hours after the last meal. It should be noted that this interval can not be considered unambiguously certain - the fact is that in the freezing, under freezing conditions, metabolic processes in the human body can slow down and the rate of evacuation of food from the stomach and its further movement in the intestine is very different from normal. In any case, the obtained conclusion about the time of the death of tourists, clearly showed that they did not have time to make meals at the last parking lot.
The indication of experts on hypothermia as the cause of death of each of the four tourists looked quite reasonable and could hardly be questioned. First of all, the bodies of the dead had no traces of external aggressive influence - thermal and chemical burns, traces of claws and teeth of animals, wounds with gunshot or cold steel. Krivonischenko's shin had a frightening burn size, but taking into account the presence of a fire near the corpse, this did not seem strange. Krivonischenko and Doroshenko had numerous abrasions and minor injuries of hands and feet, but since their bodies were found next to the cedar and fire, it was logical to assume that all these injuries were received during the collection of brushwood. Recall, the branches of the tree under which the bonfire was bred were broken off at an altitude of 5.5 m, and numerous traces of blood remained on the trunk of the cedar. Clinging to the tree young people, clinging to their frozen hands on the trunk, involuntarily damaged the skin and did not feel the pain because of the loss of its sensitivity. So the nature of corporal injuries Krivonischenko and Doroshenko did not contradict the overall withdrawal of the expert.
In such a situation, there was an investigation that received on March 4, 1959 at its disposal the conclusions of forensic doctors about the causes and time of death of four of the nine members of the missing tourist group. Prosecutor Ivanov, of course, could not help but feel a certain ambiguity of the situation: on the one hand, a tent cut up, the corpses of the dead stretched to their full height, possibly turned and searched by someone, that is, seemingly criminals, and on the other, a confident indication of forensic doctors at a low temperature, i.e., a natural factor, as the cause of death. In what direction was the investigation to be conducted?