Autopsies bodies, found in a ravine

Attention: this article contains images of corpses exposed to physical and natural influences.

People with an unstable psyche, impressionable and with increased emotional excitability, viewing is undesirable!!!

Forensic medical examination of bodies of tourists in Dyatlov group (Dubininа, Zolotarev, Kolevatov, Thibault Brignol).

On May 9, 1959, the forensic medical expert revived and investigated the bodies of the last four members of the deceased group, Igor Dyatlov. This work was conducted in the morgue of the Ivdelskaya ITK, the same one where forensic medical examination of corpses of other participants of the march two months earlier. Only this time in the compiled certificates of expertise do not mention the witnesses, and the role of the second expert was played by a forensic expert Churkina, already familiar to us. This circumstance is extremely curious for two reasons: firstly, Henrietta Eliseevna was not a forensic physician and could not give expert opinions on issues related to forensic medicine, and secondly, she did not sign the documents compiled by Boris Vozrozdenyi. Pay attention to this incident - this is only one of many oddities associated with the examinations in question.
   The forensic expert Boris Alexeevich discovered and described the bodies of the dead, as well as their clothes, in the following condition:

a) Dubinin Lyudmila Alexandrovna was dressed in a greyish-brown, worn sweater, under it is a beige woolen sweater, under which, in turn, a checkered cowboy with fastened sleeves. The mention of the fastened sleeves is all the more strange, since the expert did not mention a single word about the state of the pockets of the shirt and buttons that fasten it. Very strange forgetting, especially if you take into account that before the Renaissance did not forget to fix the "zestyugnost" - "unbuttoned" clothing and pockets. Moreover, this kind of recording of the state of clothing was a direct requirement of the normative documents regulating the procedure for the implementation of forensic medical examination (the normative base of that time and its observance by the forensic medical expert Boris Alexandrovich Vozrozhdenniy, we will talk soon - this topic contains so many wonderful discoveries that it should not be to call a brief mention). Finally, under the cowboy was a white x / paper bra fastened with 3 buttons (our forensic expert here did not forget to emphasize the "zestyugnost" found clothes).
   How was the lower body insulated? In reply to this question, the forensic expert again becomes pedantic and exhaustively full. He describes torn x / paper trousers ("sometimes very torn and sometimes burned"), under them - black x / paper tights ("torn in the perineum"), men's satin pants. In addition, light brown cotton stockings are on the legs, on the left leg the stocking is lowered, on the right leg is held by an elastic band. Accordingly, stockings, "a gray belt with elastic bands-garters" (Revived and then does not forget to emphasize that the belt is fastened).
   The fair hair of the deceased girl was braided in a braid up to 50 cm long, a blue silk ribbon was woven into the braid. Lyudmila Dubinina's height was 167 cm and it should be noted that for that time she was a large, strong, athletic girl. The dead woman was a virgin, she did not have sex life - this must also be said directly and unequivocally, despite all the delicacy of this issue.
   The forensic expert described the cadaveric spots that were localized on the posterior and lateral surfaces of the trunk and limbs of the deceased. This means that at the time of death and until freezing, while the possibility of blood flow through the vessels was preserved, the body of the deceased was in a position "on the back," possibly "on the back and partly on the side," but not in the same position as the body Lyudmila Dubinina was photographed during the excavation of the ravine (on her knees, face and chest on a stone).

With an external examination of the body, the Rebellious discovered the following injuries (see the corresponding anatomical diagram):
   - absence of soft tissues in the region of the superciliary arches, nose bridge, eye sockets and left temporal-malar area. The bones of the facial part of the skull are partially exposed (pos. 1);
   - in the region of the left parietal bone a defect of soft tissues measuring 4.0 * 4.0 cm, the bottom of which is the naked parietal bone (pos.7);
   - eyeballs are absent (pos.1). In the Act, the reason for their disappearance is indicated. According to the meaning of the phrase, you can conclude that the eyeballs were not crushed, because in this case there would be a sclera (shell of the eyeball), which the expert could not miss. That is, there was a complete removal of both eyes;
   - the cartilages of the nose are flattened (but the bones of the back of the nose are intact) (pos.2). Quite a strange damage, the explanation of which is not so easy to find, as it may seem at first glance. The fact that the human nose is a fairly fragile construction and its back breaks even when applying a small load, and it breaks with a shift, a skew, so that the shape of the nose can not be restored even with timely and qualified treatment. Most of all, the damage described by Lyudmila Dubinina corresponds to a blow to the tip of the nose from the side;
   - there are no soft tissues of the upper lip on the right side with the exposure of the upper jaw and teeth;
   - there is no tongue in the oral cavity. With an internal examination, the expert will clarify this point as follows: "The diaphragm of the mouth and tongue is absent. The upper margin of the hyoid bone is exposed. " And that's it! Amazing laconicism, from which nothing can be understood. We still have to return to an analysis of the stylistic features of this and some other acts of forensic medical examinations, signed by Boris Alekseevich;
   - in the middle third of the left thigh - a diffuse bruise of cyanotic-lilac color measuring 10.0 cm * 5 cm, with a hemorrhage into the thickness of the skin. The hemorrhage was located on the outer surface of the leg in front (pos.6);
   - far gone maceration of the fingers and toes of both feet. The skin from the terminal phalanges of the fingers contracted with the nail plates;
   - with the palpation of the neck - the unusual mobility of the horns of the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage (This is a serious indication of suffocation or a throat blow from the bottom up, although it should be noted that the hyoid bones of girls and young women are considered more mobile than men).
   At internal research the forensic expert discovered multiple bilateral fractures of the ribs. On the right side of the body of the deceased, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th ribs were broken, the lines of their fractures corresponded to the middle and middle axillary lines (ie, were observed in the middle of the right side of the chest and from the armpit downwards along the right lateral side surface of the torso) (pos.3 in the diagram). On the left, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th ribs were broken, the line of these fractures corresponded to the sredneklyuchichnoy line (pos.4). These injuries caused significant hemorrhages in the intercostal muscles and the area of ​​the so-called. the arms of the sternum (upper half of the middle of the chest), which the forensic expert also recorded. In addition, the expert noted in the region of the right ventricle of the heart "an irregular oval shape of a 4.0" 4.0 cm hemorrhage with diffuse impregnation of the right ventricular muscle "(pos.5). This damage, apparently, was in direct connection with the fractures of the ribs, although the expert in his act did not directly write about this and the cause of hemorrhage in the cardiac muscle was not indicated. Diffuse impregnation of the muscle indicated the lifetime of the effect that caused the hemorrhage. This trauma in itself is so serious that it alone would be enough for the onset of fatal consequences.

The generalized scheme of bodily injuries of Lyudmila Dubinina.

Lyudmila Dubinina

In addition, the deceased had a pulmonary edema, similar to what was observed in Yuri Doroshenko (literally in the text of the Act, it is described literally the same words: "on a section of lung tissue of dark red color, with pressure from the surface of the incision drips bloody bloody flowing liquid"). In 1959, medical science could not explain the pathogenesis of acute edema of the lungs and fight them, strictly speaking, then they could not - all the treatment was reduced to a primitive and ineffective method of "cervical Novocain blockade." It was believed that the central nervous system plays a major role in the development of acute pulmonary edema. Such failures could be caused by serious disorders of the heart (hypertrophy and cardiac dilatation, dyspnea-cyanotic attacks, etc.), in any case, medicine already associated with cardiac dysfunction with acute pulmonary edema. Therefore, in the case of Lyudmila Dubinina, who received a serious heart injury, an acute edema of lungs did not cause special questions, the Expert could logically and clearly explain it. But in the case with Yuri Doroshenko, everything was not so clear and as we remember, the forensic expert in his detention circumvented the acute edema of the lungs discovered by him at the time of complete silence.
   Very strange was the absence of Ludmila Dubinina's tongue, and with it the diaphragm of her mouth (these are the muscles that form the bottom of the oral cavity and participate in the movements of the lower jaw). What happened to the tongue of the deceased from the document compiled by the expert is impossible to understand - it is not a reproach to the expert, but a statement of fact. If the tongue were cut, then there should be (theoretically, at least) recognizable traces, but these are not described. It is difficult to guess what natural causes could lead to the disappearance of the tongue and the diaphragm of the mouth. It is known that aquatic inhabitants, especially crustaceans, are capable of damaging the corpses very quickly in a very short time, but there is no question of any fish or crayfish in the brook with meltwater. Suspect the work of mice too. In winter, mice can be active under snow up to 3 hours a day, but they do not eat frozen flesh (especially, they can hardly eat a mass that is many times greater than its own weight, which is calculated in grams). It is difficult to judge the culinary preferences of mice and rats, but it is well known that they usually eat up the protruding parts of the head - nose, ears. If Dubinina had seen such damage, then the disappearance of the tongue would not look so suspicious. However, none of the Dyatlov group had any traces of skin lesions in small animals (the only exception is the Krivonischenko corpse, whose tip was supposedly spiked by birds). On the Internet forums, a version was voiced according to which the frozen tongue of the deceased could have broken away during transportation and fell out of the open mouth, but otherwise it is difficult to call such an assumption naive. The frozen human corpse has the hardness of a tree, but it does not crack like glass and it does not fly off pieces when it strikes. In any case, forensic medicine knows nothing about the fact that parts of the frozen body can fall off during careless transportation.
   In the stomach of the deceased, the expert found about 100 cu. cm "mucous mass of a dark red color", which got there, possibly due to the removal of the tongue. Nothing similar to "Vishnevsky spots" on the stomach mucosa was found, and when examining the brain, it was stated "poor blood filling" of the meninges.
   That is, the most important objective signs of deep hypothermia could not be detected. Moreover, fingers on the hands and feet of Lyudmila Dubinina were not frost-bitten, which clearly indicated that at the time of death the girl was not unsuccessfully struggling with the cold. And it was not frost and wind that killed her.
   The set of observations made by the forensic expert prompted him to formulate in the final part of the Act of his expertise the cause of the death of the girl: "I believe that Dubinin's death came as a result of a large hemorrhage to the right ventricle of the heart, multiple bilateral fracture of the ribs, and profuse internal bleeding into the thoracic cavity." Thus. No connection with the insufficiency of clothes in conditions of staying in the cold, the death of Lyudmila Dubinina did not have. Since there could be a very relevant question to the expert about the source of the fatal impact, the expert inserted into his act the following very significant passage: "These injuries could arise as a result of the influence of a large force, which entailed a serious closed fatal chest injury at Dubinina's. Moreover, injuries of a lifetime nature are the result of the impact of a large force, followed by a fall, throw or bruise of the chest by Dubinina. "
   A very interesting document was obtained from the expert's companion and the inquisitive reader has the right to ask the author whether he will have any comments? Let's hasten to assure: oh yes, comments will be! Right in the next chapter ...

b) Zolotarev Semyon Alekseevich, according to the Act of Forensic Medical Examination, was dressed so well that we are unlikely to make a mistake, supposing that we found him practically in the same clothes in which he made the ski crossing. In his wardrobe was missing only mittens and jacket-storm (all the group's stormbars, as you know, were found in the tent).
   Zolotaryov's head was wearing two hats-a thin knitted sports cap made of wool and a fur hat with a fur hat and leather top; on the neck - a scarf, there on the neck of the expert found a tourist mask on the straps (an analogue of the respirator, which was used to protect the nose and mouth from the inhalation of cold air in severe frost). The torso of the deceased was protected by a cotton sweatshirt, over which was a blue long-sleeved shirt (also cotton) and a black sweater (again, cotton). Over the sweater was wearing a sports jacket with a button on buttons. As the expert pointed out, the two upper buttons of the latter were unbuttoned, and the button of the cuff of the right sleeve was also unbuttoned (the moment is important, especially in the context of the fact that we are talking about a person dying from the hypocrisy in the general opinion!). Finally, a worn vest of sheepskin was put on top of the jacket. The lower part of the body was also protected from frost quite satisfactorily: melting over the satin panties, two ski pants and, finally, tarpaulin trousers, in the back pocket of which was found a soiled newspaper. In the inner pocket of the overalls - a comb and a tangle of threads, in the right overhead pocket - an onion and coins at 3, 5 and 15 cents. On the left leg woolen and x / paper socks, on the right - one woolen. And besides them on Zolotarev was a full-fledged footwear, so-called. burka (high, under the knee, warm shoes, usually of felt, less often felt, on the leather soles.) Zolotarev had no shoes and, according to Yudin's recollections, walked in homemade black quilted beads. The word "homemade" in this case is embarrassing should not be: in those days of general shortage, the masters made shoes much better than Soviet factory consumer goods.) Quilted coats made from several layers of greatcoat and covered with tarpaulin were lighter and warmer than ordinary felt, but not so wet). The compass was on the left wrist of the deceased. It is known that Zolotarev was found with a camera, but it is not known whether the film was loaded in it (however, we can say otherwise: we do not know whether the film that Zolotarev was running was installed in the camera that tried to save it). It would not be a mistake to say that Semyon Zolotarev was the first of all the members of the Djatlov group we examined, who were fully dressed and shod. The only detail of clothing, the absence of which is evident - these are mittens.

When examining the oral cavity, the expert described the false teeth and crowns of the deceased: on the upper jaw to the right 2 crowns and a tooth from white metal, on the lower jaw - 4 crowns of white metal. The height of the deceased was 172 cm.
   It deserves special mention that Semen Zolotarev was the only member of the deceased group who did not part with the camera in the face of death. And here it is necessary to make important clarifications: the investigation believed that the "Dyatlovites" had 4 cameras belonging to the members of the group - Igor Dyatlov, Georgy Krivonischenko, Rustem Slobodin and finally, Semyon Zolotarev. All this photographic equipment was found in the tent, the investigation was concerned with the establishment of its accessories, the extraction of photographic films and their processing, so we had a unique opportunity to look at the tragic trek through the eyes of the camera owners (we still have to return to the special chapter in analyzing the photographs taken by the participants of the march) . And in May, on the corpse of Zolotarev, another one is suddenly found - the fifth one - a camera. On the existence of his Yuri Yudin did not know anything and the investigation, of course, did not say anything ... To exclude any ambiguity, we emphasize that Yudin confidently identified as belonging to Zolotarev one of the cameras found in the tent, which was returned to the mother of the latter in April 1959.
   Concluding the conversation about the camera, we will note that now there is no clarity in the origin of this camera, it is not known whether the film was inside it and if "yes", how many frames were shot. But it is unlikely to be a mistake to assume that Semen Zolotaryov, for some reason, greatly valued this thing.
   The forensic expert at the time of the autopsy recorded the following injuries of the deceased (see the corresponding diagram):
   - absence of eyeballs (pos.1);
   - On the right occiput wound 8.0 * 6.0 cm with exposure of the parietal bone (pos.4);
   - in the region of the eyes and brow ridges - a defect of soft tissues of round form with a size of 7.0 * 6.0 cm with weakened edges and "exposure of the bones of the facial skull" (pos.2);
   - fractures 2,3,4,5 and 6 ribs on the right along the "okologogrudnoy and medium-axillary" lines with a hemorrhage in the adjacent intercostal muscles (pos.3).

The generalized scheme of bodily injuries of Semyon Zolotaryov.

Semyon Zolotaryov

In the pleural cavity of the deceased there were about 1 liter of dark blood, which indicated the lifelong development of hemothorax (the filling of the pleural cavity with blood, because of which the lung loses its ability to fully decompress on inhalation.) The phenomenon is deadly, since it leads to rapid strangulation of the victim, in clinical conditions for the control of hemothorax, it is required to perform puncture of the pleural cavity, sometimes repeatedly.In the field, in the absence of special skills and instruments, The volume of blood in the pleural cavity means 100% death of the victim). The cause of the described phenomenon could be fractures of the ribs. It should be noted that although each of the five broken ribs had two fractures, the actual number of fractures could only be established by an X-ray examination of the corpse. The fact is that when ribs are broken in several places, small irregular bone forms with sharp edges are formed, and the ribs themselves in the places of breakage have irregularities and jaggies. In fact, on the right side of Zolotaryov's chest, we see a porridge of bones and torn flesh, ribs have lost the ability to keep their shape and thereby protect internal organs from external traumatic influences of even the most insignificant force. Particularly we emphasize that a person with such a trauma without the support of others is absolutely helpless, his right arm is "disabled", which he is even unable to lift, since the muscles responsible for this movement are attached to the upper ribs. Zolotaryov after the injury had to suffer severe pain. To stay alive for a little while, he had to be in absolute rest, a single awkward movement not only deprived him of consciousness, but killed in the literal meaning of the word. From death, due to the development of hemothorax, only urgent surgical care could save him, which no one could provide him in the field.
   Of course, everything that has been said about Semyon Zolotarev's hemothorax can with good reason be attributed to Lyudmila Dubinina, whose trauma was not only similar, but even more destructive for the organism.
   In addition to hemothorax, the examination revealed traces of acute pulmonary edema, similar to that described by Doroshenko and Dubinina. But like Lyudmila, this process did not go far, lumens of the larynx and bronchi remained free from foam, which means that the edema began to develop in the last moments of life, perhaps already in the agonal stage. The cause of edema was a disruption of the central nervous system in the process of dying.
   On the lower clothing of the deceased, traces of feces were found, but to attach too much importance to this fact. Defecation in the agonal state does not indicate either the rate of death or its features. Reflex drainage of the bladder, defecation and ejaculation (in men) during dying are often observed, even in cases where death occurs transiently. Domestic "conspiracy" should have read more books on forensic medicine and do not rush to far-reaching conclusions, then, you see, they would not have got into such a ridiculous position with such versions.

There is no reason to believe that Zolotaryov's death was followed at the time of intimate departures, since he simply would not have had time to put on two cowards, two ski pants and overalls, the straps of which were missed under the clothes. And therefore, one should not repeat the mistakes of "conspiracy theorists" who studied the history of Kirov's murder, and look for the hidden meaning where there is none.
   As in the case of Lyudmila Dubinina, the forensic expert Revived did not check the bones of the deceased for fragility, having considered, obviously, such an excess. The expert did not associate the death of Semyon Zolotarev with hypothermia. According to Boris Alekseevich, the latter's death was violent and was caused by multiple fractures of the ribs and caused by this abundant internal bleeding (thereby hemothorax, which was mentioned above). Damage to the skin at the back of the head expert considered a consequence of the posthumous rotting of the flesh and in this, most likely, he is right. But it should be noted that the reason for the described "sizeable soft tissue defect" was an in vivo wound of smaller dimensions. Based on the fact of the preservation of the lung tissue, the Revival determined the duration of the body's stay in the water for no more than 15 days - this estimate concerned all four bodies found in the ravine. The minimum assessment - 6 days - was determined based on the degree of development of maceration (with removal of the layer of skin, hair and nail plates). Thus. the bodies of Dubinina, Zolotarev, Thibo-Brignol and Kolevatov were in the water for 6 to 15 days.

c) Alexander Kolevatov was generally well insulated, though he did not have a headdress. On his body he wore a "natural shirt with a nap" (apparently with long sleeves, although the expert did not specify it), a cotton shirt with a collar, in his pockets were an English pin, a key to the lock, a piece of wrapping paper and two packs of tablets (codeine and soda). On top of the shirt-cowboys were the sweatshirts of a sweater, a sweater with a pinnacle and a ski jacket made of paper with a zipper. The jacket was damaged - a large hole on the left sleeve with burned edges, measuring 25 cm * 12 cm * 13 cm, and tears of the right sleeve 7-8 cm long. The jacket was unbuttoned, and its pockets and cuffs were also unbuttoned. The lower part of the body was also protected well enough: panties, pants, ski trousers with sidebands with side clasps (in the pocket of a handkerchief), canvas trousers-overalls with tears below. in the right pocket of the overalls - a soggy box of matches. The shoe did not have a shoe; on its feet was a pair of woolen socks of house mating with traces of burning, and under them on the right foot - one x / paper sock, and on the left - three of the same. On the left ankle under the clothes was found a gauze dressing, imposed clearly before the escape from the tent, since the lost kits were not taken with the first-aid kit.

The height of the deceased was 174 cm.
   The revived described the following damage to the corpse (see the corresponding diagram):
   - In the region of the eye sockets and the superciliary arches - the absence of soft tissues with the exposure of the bones of the skull, the eyebrows are absent (pos.1);
   - "the cartilage of the nose is soft to the touch, unusual mobility. The base of the nose is flattened. "(Nose broken?) (Pos.2);
   - behind the right auricle in the zone of the mastoid process of the temporal bone, a wound of an indeterminate shape measuring 3.0 * 1.5 * 0.5 cm penetrating to the bone (i.e., the mastoid process of the temporal bone) (pos.6);
   - on the right cheek defect of soft tissues measuring 4.0 * 5.5 cm of irregular oval shape with wrinkled, smoothed, thinned edges. The bottom of the defect is the bones of the lower jaw. "Around the defect located on the right cheek and the area of ​​the lower jaw, soft tissues of purple-green color" (literal quote from the Act.The meaning of the phrase is the expert's finding that the damage detected is the epicenter of rotting the flesh) (pos.3);
   - the neck is deformed in the region of the thyroid cartilage (pos.4);
   - skin integument of the chest with sliding of the surface layer of the skin (it should be clearly understood that this is not an indication of complete separation of the skin, but only evidence of separation of the epidermis from the corium.) Often observed in bodies that have been in water for 6 or more days. bodies found in the ravine, the slipping of the skin on the head with the hair refers precisely to the phenomenon mentioned. In itself, this sign does not indicate any unusual damage or rotting of the body, but only characterizes the length of the body's stay in the water It is together with maceration of the feet and hands, a reliable indicator of this).;
   - Maceration of fingers and toes;
   - Spilled hemorrhage into the underlying tissues of the left knee joint (pos.5).
   The mouth of the deceased was uncovered, the language was in place (here the reader can try to draw an analogy with what the expert saw in Dubinina). Skin covers are greenish-gray with a crimson hue. On the parieto-occipital region, cadaveric hair slipping was noted, characteristic of bodies that had been in water for a long time and had undergone significant decomposition, as was mentioned above. Cadaver spots expert found on the back of the lateral surface of the trunk and extremities. The amount of urine found in the bladder of the deceased was the largest of all recorded in the group - 700 ml.

The generalized scheme of bodily injuries of Alexander Kolevatov.

It is important to note that in the pleural cavity of the deceased the expert found up to 500 cu. cm bloody fluid. This is about half of what was recorded in a hemothorax patient Zolotarev. From the Act it is completely impossible to understand what caused such a fullness of the pleural cavities and if this phenomenon was in vivo, then Alexander Kolevatov was doomed to death.
   Histological examination of biological samples taken from internal organs and intercostal muscles did not show the presence of hemorrhages. At the same time, severe putrefactive changes were noted.
   The expert defined Kolevatov's death as violent, resulting from exposure to low temperature, and the main bodily injuries (as well as maceration) were, according to the Renaissance, posthumous. Formal grounds for the second part of such a conclusion seem to exist. Only the damage to the left knee was, of course, in vivo, but it most likely had nothing to do with the circumstances of Alexander Kolevatov's death and occurred before the tragic events on the mountainside began to unfold. In any case, the presence of a gauze bandage on the left ankle indicated that the injured knee was bandaged and the bandage slipped during subsequent movements.
   Certainly, it should be regarded as a very serious head injury behind Kolevatov's right ear, that is, a wound of 3.0 * 1.5 * 0.5 cm reaching the mastoid process of the temporal bone. If this damage was caused long before death, it would certainly form a noticeable edema. Revived, however, edema behind the ear is not described, but this does not mean the posthumous origin of this damage, because the deceased could have been injured immediately before his death, in just a few minutes. Actually, it was this trauma that could cause loss of consciousness followed by rapid freezing in the snow. In this case, the edema behind the ear simply would not have appeared ...
   It should be noted that in this act is very convex, as in no other, the discrepancy between the descriptive and final parts has been displayed. In other words, from what the forensic scientist described the Revived does not follow the conclusion he made. The softest formulation that comes to mind in this regard is that the FMS act is incomplete, the statement about death from hypothermia on the basis of the described changes in the state of the body looks ill-founded, more generally, unreasonable.
   In fact, the expert did not describe the frostbite of the limbs (including the penis), characteristic of the freezing of a sober person, actively fighting frost. There is no such important evidence of death from hypothermia as overcrowding in the blood of internal organs, primarily of the meninges (their blood supply is characterized as "satisfactory"). In the stomach there were no "spots of Vishnevsky" - also a significant sign of far-reaching hypothermia. The only indication of death from hypothermia was the overflow of the bladder, but as already noted, for stained corpses, this sign ceases to be unconditionally accurate. In addition, innervation of the bladder can also occur with a concussion of the brain.

Alexander Kolevatov turned out to be the only one of the four found in the ravine, whose death the expert Renaissance wrote "in the cold" (verbatim: "his death came as a result of exposure to low temperature." The body injuries discovered on Kolevatov's body, as well as the "bath" skin, are posthumous changes of the corpse ").

d) Thibo-Brignol Nikolay Vladimirovich, like Semyon Zolotarev, was much better dressed than the rest of the group. On his head were a canvas fur hat and a wool knitted cap, "tightly tied", as the expert noted. The torso was protected from frost by a knitted shirt, torn on the right and under, a woolen sweater dressed inside out, and a fur jacket on the sheepskin. In the right pocket of the jacket were found a pair of woolen gloves, in the left - coins of 2.10 and 20 kopecks, two collapsed pieces of paper and a comb. The lower part of the body was also warmed quite satisfactorily - satin pants, cotton sports pants and warm woolen winter trousers, a pair of white, hand-knitted, woolen socks and felt boots. In the right felt boots was a stray brown woolen sock. The Act states that this sock is "in line with the insole", from which it is impossible to understand whether the insole in the right felt boots has also been crumpled, whether it was not there at all and the sock was stacked instead of it, but it was moved when walking. On the left wrist of Thibault Brignoles, the expert found two hours, stopped at about the same time - at 8:14 and 8:39.
   The height of the deceased is 174 cm, the corpse stains are located on the posterior-lateral surface of the chest, neck and extremities. A slipping of the epidermis of the head along with the hair (as with the rest of the dead, found in the ravine) is noted. On the cheeks, chin and upper lip, bristles up to 1 cm long.
   The forensic scientist expert described the following bodily injuries of Nicholas Thibault-Brignol (see the corresponding anatomical diagram):
   - diffuse hemorrhage in the right temporal muscle (pos.1). Depressed fracture of the temporal parietal region measuring 9.0 * 7.0 cm (area of ​​the temporal bone depression 3.0 * 2.5 * 2.0 cm). "The specified area of ​​the bone is pressed into the cavity of the skull and is located on the dura mater. Multifragmented fracture of the right temporal bone with divergence and transition of the fracture of the bone into the anterior cranial pit to the supraucleic region of the frontal bone. "Another crack - with a divergence of the edges from 0.1 cm to 0.4 cm - on the back surface of the Turkish saddle in the region of the wedge-shaped process, in the thickness of the main bone, then passes into the middle cranial pit on the left. "In general, the length of the crack in the base of the skull is 17 cm. In addition, there is an asymmetry due to the compression fracture of this area." (In the meaning of the phrase, it can be assumed that this is an asymmetry of the cranium, visible, as they say, by eye);
   - on the upper lip on the left "defect of soft tissues irregularly oval" size 3.0 * 4.0 cm (pos.2);
   - on the right shoulder "on the anterior-internal surface of the spilled blood bruise 10.0 * 12.0 cm greenish-blue at the level of the middle and lower third. In the field of bruising, hemorrhages in the underlying soft tissues are not "(pos.3). (The last remark - regarding the absence of hemorrhage in the underlying tissues - indicates traumatization immediately before the death of Thibault Brignoles.) This is a very interesting and even strange trauma, we will pay special attention to the recording of the Expert! Some time later we will return to the analysis of what was written).
   In his conclusion, the forensic expert stated: "(...) I believe that his death came as a result of a closed multi-lobed depressed fracture into the region of the arch and the base of the skull, with a profuse hemorrhage to the cerebral membranes and to the brain substance in the presence of the action of low ambient temperature." Thus. The reborn did not find reason to calculate that Thibault-Brignol died from hypothermia.

Generalized scheme of bodily harm Nicholas Thibault-Brignol.

Damage to the bones of the skull can sometimes be very informative. At high impact speed, for example, the cranial cracks can "snack" the victim's hair, and if the area of ​​impact is small (up to 15-16 square cm), then the contour of the damaged area allows you to accurately see the configuration of the impact surface. Thanks to this feature of the skull bones it is possible to establish without any special difficulties the origin of the injury from hitting a hammer, an ax axle, a weight weigher. Also, the character of the bone fracture often allows one to judge the number of faces of the impact surface.

Scheme of damage to the skull of Nicholas Thibault-Brignol, correlated with the dimension of the skull of a man of medium height. Although the true orientation and configuration of the injured area is not known to us, this diagram gives a general idea of ​​the scale of cranial deformities obtained by Thibault Brignol as a result of trauma. They are truly terrible and in the campaign conditions they did not leave a chance to save the life of the victim. Legend: "1" - a temporal bone site, measuring 2.5 * 3.0 cm, pressed into a depth of 2.0 cm; "A" - a crack with a divergence of the edges, reaching the eccentric region of the frontal bone; "B" - a crack at the base of the skull with a divergence of the edges up to 4 mm, deepening into the thickness of the main bone. Her total length, measured by  after the extraction of the brain, was 17 cm.

In terms of the number of bone fragments, one can confidently judge the impact strength (the larger it is, the greater the number of fragments, with especially strong impacts, it is possible to split the skull into a large number of fragments.) In the history of forensic medicine, cases of skull fracture into 100 or more fragments are described). In the case of Thibo Brignol, the forensic expert could identify certain characteristics of the subject, which was the source of the impact that caused the trauma, even without knowing what exactly it was for the subject.

A sketch executed in accordance with the scale, which makes it possible to visualize the damage to the skull of Nicholas Thibault-Brignol. Conventional symbols correspond to the figure above.
   It should be understood that the total size of the fracture of the temporal and parietal bones - 9 cm by 7 cm - indicates the size of the area involved in the deformation, but this does not necessarily imply its exact correspondence to the impact surface (neither contours, nor area). The pressed pad has an area of ​​7.5 sq. M. cm (ie, 3.0 * 2.5 cm at a depth of 2.0 cm), and it is obvious that if this were the true area of ​​the traumatizing surface, a holey bone fracture of the same exact area would be observed in the skull of Thibault Brignoles , but not at all depressed. It will not be a mistake to say that the affected (traumatic) surface clearly exceeded the 16 square meter limit. cm (this is the upper limit of the area of ​​the hole fracture) and its area ranged from 16 to 63 square meters. cm (the last figure is the total surface area of ​​the skull involved in the deformation).

The expert could confidently state that the source of the traumatic impact was devoid of facets, since the cranial lesions left by the sharp ones (bayonet, ax, stake) and tusk (the hammer, the bar of rolled metal, the wooden beam) with tools are very recognizable. The expert would not have made it difficult to identify them. Assumptions that the canvas fur hat and knitted cap on the head of Thibault Brignol could significantly soften the blow and distort its tracks, seem to be poorly grounded. To put it bluntly, this is not a defense that can really save the head from the very strong impact that the victim suffered. The fracture of the skull of Thibaut was caused by a blunt instrument - this is clearly evidenced by the absence of a wound (i.e., rupture of the skin).
   Evaluating the clothes of the deceased, it should be noted that Nikolay Thibaut, like Zolotarev, apparently remained in the same garment in which he made the last ski trip to the slope of Holat-Sahyl. Why this happened will help to understand the clock on the wrist of the deceased. Thibault-Brignol February 1 most likely was on duty in the camp, which is why he wore second hours (so as not to oversleep the early rise). It can not be said that Nikolai Thibaut was overheated - only two pants and the only pair of socks in felt boots - but such, apparently, was the strength of the habit of a seasoned tourist. In any case, for a ski crossing with a backpack behind his shoulders, he was dressed normally.
   Considerable attention of researchers of the tragedy on the slope of Holat-Sahyl attracted the testimony of the hours of the dead tourists. Someone has been informed that according to the hours found on the hand of the corpse, one can judge the time of death, more precisely, the time of cooling the hand to the street temperature. Mol-de, the lubricant in the case stiffens and the clock stops for one hour from the moment of death. The birth of this rumor is difficult to explain solely by technical ignorance ("engineering cretinism"), apparently, we see the realization of the latent desire of some researchers to find the "magic mirror" from the Pushkin fairy tale, giving the correct answers without unnecessary tricks. However, lovers of quick answers will have to disappoint - the hours of the dead tourists in their testimonies do not contain any clues, alas.
   The specifications for the development of mechanical watches and ammunition fuses contained requirements for ensuring guaranteed operation in the temperature range from -50 ° C to +50 ° C. The Soviet clock was insensitive to the temperature drop in this range and no "thickening lubricant" arrows could stop. Both watches and ammunition fuses in those times were developed by the design bureaus and produced the same production from the same materials. Soviet shells and mines did not have to be heated before the shooting - they were laid directly on the snow and shot without any thermal adaptation. And the clock, mounted in combat equipment, also no one specially warmed, for their normal operation only a daily factory was required. If the work of clockwork really depended on the temperature of the hand, we would have seen the appearance of noticeable errors in the readings of the clock with a temperature change of even a few tens of degrees (in the desert conditions, the arrows would begin to "run forward", and in winter conditions - delay). Nothing of the kind, however, has ever really happened and the Soviet clock at any time of the year has consistently demonstrated its most important virtue - stability of work.

Nevertheless, the legend of the clock, indicating the moment of death, to such an extent populated in the brain of a part of Internet users that there were enthusiasts who did even some actual tests. Holding the wrist mechanical clock in the freezer, they were convinced that the stay there did not affect their work.
   Concluding the description and analysis of bodily injuries inflicted on the dead members of Igor Dyatlov's group, let us summarize some results.
   1) The force, the impact of which caused the death of Dubinina, Zolotarev and Thibault Brignol, was certainly very significant;
   2) In the case of Zolotarev and Dubinina, one can see the surprising uniformity of both the external force and the damage caused by it;
   3) This force acted with high precision and selectivity. Despite the different growth and weight of Dubinina and Zolotarev, the external influence did not affect the collarbone of either one, but at the same time the second (and lower) ribs broke. It is also surprising that humeral bones remained intact. It is impossible to imagine that some unintended impact of the spontaneous nature (avalanche, a tree falling on the chest, an unsuccessful fall on a stone, etc.), in two cases showed such accuracy in the choice of the point of application;
   4) It is very unusual to localize the injury of the skull of Thibault Brignoles. The shock of the stone (or falling on the stone) was ruled out by the forensic medical expert, answering the questions of the investigator Ivanov after the results of the May examinations were brought to the case. The relevant interrogation, quite by the way, is short and incoherent, there is. To explain the strange damage to the skull of Thibault, some researchers suggested that the head of the victim during the avalanche was hit on the lens of the camera, which was pressed into the skull to a depth of 2 cm. The camera, however, is not very suitable for the role of the source of exposure, because no one has seen cameras with non-round lenses measuring 3 cm by 8.5 cm, but the "killer camera" is the only explanation that at least somehow makes it possible to exclude from consideration the human factor as a source of exposure Thibault skull. After all, all the other items that were available to the group Dyatlov (axes, aluminum mugs, etc.) are not suitable because of the very obvious disparity in the size of the site of injury. However, as we shall see from the following, no avalanches were reported on February 1, 1959 on the slope of Holatchahl. In addition, injured on the slope of mountine Thibaut did not transfer night transportation to the valley of Lozva.
   5) The unbiased consideration of the described expert injuries leads to the only logical and justified conclusion about the place and time of their infliction. Dubinin, Zolotarev and Thibault Brignol received injuries at the bottom, near the ravine, and it happened shortly before their death. It can be said in another way: trauma predetermined their death, either in places where their bodies were found in May, or somewhere nearby. Assumptions according to which tourists could be traumatized elsewhere, say, on the slope of Holat-Sahyl, can not stand any criticism and are meaningless. The appearance of this kind of hypotheses can be explained only by the desire of some researchers to bring the facts to one or other far-fetched versions. Attempts to draw parallels between the present case and certain historical facts, when tourists or athletes with fractures of hands, legs or ribs retained a certain motor activity, do not stand up to criticism. Of the world history of sports (in particular, mountaineering), there are indeed cases of phenomenal persistence in the transfer of pain, but they all took place with foreign athletes and are relatively recent (70s of the 20th century and subsequent decades). Foreign climbers could successfully complete their marches with broken ribs just because they had powerful psychostimulating drugs that relieve pain and mobilize the psycho-physical capabilities of the body. There was nothing of the kind in the tourists of the Diatlov group, and therefore, one must be very careful with such historical parallels. And more precisely, they should be avoided simply because they are irrelevant.

6) Unusual bodily injuries of people found in the ravine, makes you look at the injuries of some members of the "top five", first of all Doroshenko. The release of gray foam from his respiratory tract is a serious (albeit indirect) evidence of physical violence that he experienced shortly before the onset of death. Perhaps, it was this violence that provoked his death (at least, it accelerated). What could be the source of this particular impact will be considered in the appropriate place of this essay.
   The story of a forensic study of the corpses of four tourists found in the ravine will be incomplete without mention of a very intriguing nuance that has not come into play, but has produced all sorts of guesses for several decades. In the memoirs of Henrietta Eliseevna Churkina, the same forensic expert who investigated the tent of the Djatlov group in April 1959, there is a fragment dedicated to this strange circumstance: "I was present at the examination of corpses, which the expert was conducting. Well remember, when they took off their clothes and hung them on ropes, we immediately noticed that it has some strange light purple hue, although it was of a variety of colors. I asked Boris: "Do not you think that the clothes have been processed?" He agreed. "
   Honestly, you do not know what to be more surprised at in this unsophisticated story - the ingenuity of a lazy or uncomplicated naivety of a fool. It would seem that two experts - people with higher education, competent in certain highly specialized issues, are involved in describing and investigating the corpses of dead people and their belongings in a very unusual case and they simply have to try to squeeze all the information from all possible sources. They have before their eyes an unusual phenomenon - the appearance of a strange violet background in the clothes of the deceased - and they, it would seem, should make every possible effort to understand the nature of this phenomenon. And what do these competent miracle specialists do? Yes, absolutely, nothing. You might think that people who live on Earth have their clothes painted in purple hues and shades every day ... well, or every other day. And so you should not be surprised at this, you'll think, what a trifle: today clothes are painted at the "dyatlovists" in the ravine, and tomorrow - with us, eka is unseen!
   The law gives the expert the right to go beyond the questions put to the examination and to inform the investigator, who appointed the expertise, information that he did not even ask about. The law is wise, for every norm of it - the experience of thousands and thousands of criminal cases and human destinies, and the legislator understands perfectly well that the investigator can be loaded with several complex investigations, he may lose sight of some significant nuances; finally, the investigator can be trivial incompetent in some narrowly specialized areas. That's why he turns to an expert-a narrow specialist-so that he could point out and suggest what the investigator will not see, understand, or decipher. And the experts Vozrozdennyi and Churkina saw in the Ivdel prison morgue a strange and inexplicable phenomenon, discussed it and ... safely forgotten.

There is no it in the case, there is no mention of the light purple tint of the victims' clothes under any sauce. Hats, panties, socks, crumpled gloves in the right pocket of the Thibault Brignoles jacket - that's all there is, but the change in the color of the clothes is omitted as useless. The most absurd in this situation, absurd, if you will, is that the expert Churkin, talking about what happened, did not feel the self-disclosure of his story. In fact, she said "shitty Renaissance experts, lazy, stupid", but did not even notice it. Well, how, tell me, could such a strange phenomenon be ignored? And suddenly it is dangerous, suddenly on clothes the precipitation of arsenic ... antimony ... mercury or some other mineral poison ?! We should check, we need to understand what the reason for the appearance of a strange shade! And it would be nice if the attempt to establish the cause of the appearance of a strange shade did not succeed - it could be attributed to the imperfection of the equipment and the lack of proper research methods, but no one even tried to find out anything.
   Let the reader forgive this forced retreat, for in the context of this essay it has a special meaning. The fact is that on the fact of the presence of a strange shade of clothing, some of the researchers of the tragedy of the group Igor Dyatlov made very far-reaching conclusions. About that, for example, that on a place of destruction of group there was a certain substance, causing turbidity of reason and the subsequent flight on a slope. Moreover, there is even a really wild version about the blindness of the "dyatlovists" who, having lost the opportunity to see the objects around them, climbed on the cedar behind the firewood blindly, feel it ... And there's no need to laugh, the games of the human mind can sometimes be very far! A mysterious substance that caused blinding, hit the slope of the Holat-Syahyl from a ballistic missile, whose flight crashed abruptly that night in this place.
   What I want to say on the merits ...
   This phenomenon, if only it actually existed objectively, and not dreamed of Churkina (since the expert never told about such things), could not be connected with the ballistic missile in any way. For a variety of reasons. First, liquid oxygen and kerosene, on which the then-strategic R-7 missiles flew, clothes do not stain. Liquid oxygen is cryogenic fuel, deeply cooled, getting on clothes, it would cause its instant deep freezing to frost and a man in such clothes would die very quickly with very characteristic signs of thermal impact. Nothing of the sort, as we know, happened to the woodpeckers found in the stream. Secondly, another component of fuel - heptyl (unsymmetrical di-methylhydrazine) - which at that time began to be processed by Soviet missiles, becomes toxic when the concentration in the air is about 50 times below the threshold of human smell. In other words, tourists would inhale the heptyl to death before they even noticed the appearance of a suspicious smell and rushed to save themselves. In the event of a fall of a heptyl rocket near the tent and the impact of the cloud on the "Dyatlovs", no one can speak blindly about the slope and climbing the cedar along the cedar.
   But if the light purple hue on the clothes did not give a trace of rocket fuel, then what?
   Perhaps the answer to this phenomenon lies in the fact that the staining of the fabric with a strange substance was observed only on the clothes of persons found in the stream. In other words, it was the water of the stream that contained a certain mineral dye, which gave it a light purple hue. The Urals are rich in minerals and it is possible that the bowels of Ottenen and Holat-Syahyl hide deposits of certain ores and minerals that approach close to the surface of the Earth, or generally come to the surface. Indirectly this conjecture is confirmed by the fact that there is a powerful local magnetic anomaly in the region of Kholatchahl. Its existence was first pointed out by the St. Petersburg explorer of the tragedy of the group Dyatlova Evgeny V. Buyanov who visited the site of the tragedy and found that the arrow of the compass on the pass points not to the north magnetic pole, but deviates
   If we talk about the appearance of a light purple hue, then it could give clothes a mineral of chalcantite (another name is cyanosite) accompanying copper-sulphide deposits. It is very soluble in water and is found in the Urals, in particular in the Turinsky mines (North Urals, about 240 km south of Kholatchah). There is nothing impossible in that the exits of the chalcantite are in the upper Losva. This assumption does not pretend to be true in the last resort and needs to be tested by experience (it will be enough to place tissue samples in its tributaries in the area of ​​the Djatlov Pass for several weeks and see if there will be staining). However, this assumption is far more reasonable than the fantasies about the unusual rocket fuel that selectively affects four out of nine people in a tent that does not leave traces of chemical damage to people, but miraculously color their clothes.